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Over in Biological Definition

Biodiversity

... use has coincided with the expansion of concern over extinction observed in the last decades of the ... According the National Cancer Institute , over 70 % of the promising anti-cancer drugs come from ... mass extinction is under way. While estimates over extinction rates range from a handful to upwards ...

Brain

... in the brain, larger vertebrate brains have over one hundred billion neurons. The human brain is ... the cerebral cortex, but can only detect changes over large areas of the brain and very little ... an alert response that can exert control over cognitive priorities. History Ancient ...

Charles Darwin

... of Geology postulating gradual processes over huge periods of time, Darwin wrote home that he ... His thoughts and work continued in London over the autumn and he suffered repeated bouts of ... Street, London, and Darwin moved his "museum" in over Christmas. He was showing the stress, and Emma ...

Cloning

... represent clones that have been propagated for over two millennia. This is a genuine example of ... cat cloned for commercial reasons mice : over a dozen as of 2002 rabbit : (March-April, ... threads fraying every time a cell divides . over time telomeres get worn down until cell-division ...

Diabetes mellitus

... are type 2, and about 20% of the population over the age of 65 is a type 2 diabetic. The fraction ... by weight loss. These symptoms typically worsen over days to weeks; about 25% of people with new type ... test reflecting average blood glucose levels over the preceding 90 days (approximately). ...

Eugenics

... of attempting to improve the human species over generations in regards to hereditary features. ... of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable than they otherwise would have ... most significant era of eugenic sterilization , over 64,000 individuals were forcibly sterilized under ...

Evolution

... evolution is any process of change over time. In the context of life science , evolution is a change in the traits of living organisms over generations, including the emergence of new ... natural selection acts to change populations over time. This theory was updated in the twentieth ...

Genetic recombination

... to recombination is chromosomal crossing over . In analog fashion exchange of alleles is ... showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Crossing over 1.1 Chemistry of crossover 1.2 ... 3 See also 4 References Crossing over Main article: Chromosomal crossover ...

Human

... and introspective nature, and their dominance over other animals have given rise to attempts to ... successive stages inside the female's uterus over a period of 38 weeks, it is called an embryo , ... . The maximum human life span is thought to be over 120 years. Worldwide, there are 81 men aged 60 ...

Insulin

... but not the specific nature of the islets. over the next two decades several attempts were made ... reaction and further injections were cancelled. over the next 12 days Collip worked day and night to ... of an interloper, and Collip left soon after. over the spring of 1922 Best managed to improve his ...

Leaf

... cells ( chlorenchyma tissue) to light over a broad area, and to allow light to penetrate ... leaf. Typically, the stomata are more numerous over the abaxial (lower) epidermis than the (adaxial) ... in the leaf. The xylem typically lies over the phloem. Both are embedded in a dense ...

Molecular evolution

... material in populations of organisms changing over time. The genetic material consists of DNA , ... in its natural environment and can accumulate over time, which might result in what is known as ... that the DNA error rate is constant--not just over time, but across all species and every part of a ...

Speciation

... a single population of a species changes enough over time to be designated a new species while the old ... are then liable to diverge evolutionarily over many generations as a) they become subjected to ... of speciation have actually taken place over the course of evolution is a subject of debate, ...

Species

... species is a lineage that maintains its integrity over time, that is diagnosably different to other ... the same habitat. Observation of many species over the years has failed to establish even a single ... intermediate in weight and colour. In contrast, over the same geographic range, black-backed ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... grade L-tryptophan is currently available over the counter in the U.S. Criticism of SSRIs ... both neurobiologically and clinically over the last years, are not yet understood. ... 1500 cases of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome and over 30 deaths, prompted the United States Food and ...

Stem cell

... They are already being used in treatments for over one hundred diseases and conditions. They are ... the placenta and umbilical cord that are left over after birth is one source of adult stem cells. ... adult stem cells are being found in organs all over the body. Researchers at McGill University in ...

Virus

... ; they can only reproduce by invading and taking over other cells as they lack the cellular machinery ... begins the destructive process of taking over the cell and forcing it to produce new viruses. ... begins again. When the virus has taken over the cell, it immediately directs the host to ...

Y chromosome

... have robust and accurate repair mechanisms. over time random mistakes - mutations - occur ... one from their mother and one from their father. over time damage occurs, yet at the same time, ... not caught by this technique are weeded out over time through natural selection. Until recently ...

Allostery

... of any ligand (substrate or otherwise), the equilibrium favors the T state over the R state. To summarize: all subunits must exist in the same conformation equilibrium favors the T state over the R state The binding of substrate to one subunit causes all other ...

Allostery

... of any ligand (substrate or otherwise), the equilibrium favors the T state over the R state. To summarize: all subunits must exist in the same conformation equilibrium favors the T state over the R state The binding of substrate to one subunit causes all other ...

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

... Leeuwenhoek translates as "from lion's corner". Van Leeuwenhoek ground over 500 optical lenses during his lifetime. His microscope was used and ... drop of ... " - Stated after his discovery of the microscopic world over three centuries ago. He is thought by some to have been the model for ...

Biology

... are often viewed as independent disciplines. Together, they study life over a wide range of scales . Life is studied at the atomic and molecular ... with the origin and descent of species , as well as their change over time, i.e. their evolution . Evolutionary biology is an inclusive field ...

Bioinformatics

... is the study of the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time. Recent developments in genome sequencing and the ubiquity of fast ... building computational models of populations and watching their behavior over time. The field of genetic algorithms might be described as the rough ...

BLAST

... it addresses a fundamental problem, and its algorithm emphasizes speed over sensitivity. This emphasis on speed is vital to making the algorithm ... and run as a command-line utility "blastall" or accessed for free over the web. The BLAST web server, hosted by the NCBI , allows anyone with a ...

Cancer

... smear ) leads to the identification and excision of precancerous lesions. over time, such testing has been followed by a dramatic reduction of cervical ... carcinoma . Environment and diet The most consistent finding, over decades of research, is the strong association between tobacco use and ...

Chromatography

... of differential distributions of the solutes as they flow around or over a stationary liquid or solid phase. Various techniques for the separation ... (the most common are methanol or acetonitrile ). Often, a gradient over time in the solvent composition passing through the column is used to ...

Cilium

... exclusively and use them for either locomotion or to simply move liquid over their surface. Most other organisms that have motile cilia use them only to move liquid over their cell's surface. Motile cilia are almost never found alone, ...

Competitive exclusion principle

... One of the two competitors will always have an ever so slight advantage over the other that leads to extinction of the second competitor in the long ... trade-offs , and lag prevent exclusion (ignoring stochastic extinction over longer time-frames). However, such systems tend to be analytically ...

Bioinformatics

... is the study of the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time. Recent developments in genome sequencing and the ubiquity of fast ... building computational models of populations and watching their behavior over time. The field of genetic algorithms might be described as the rough ...

Chromosomal crossover

... genes. Any pair of homologous chromosomes may be expected to cross over three or four times during meiosis. This aids evolution by increasing ... between genes on the same chromosome. The physical basis of crossing over was first demonstrated by Harriet Creighton and Barbara McClintock in ...

Diffusion

... carbon dioxide molecules towards them. A smelly gas distributes itself over a room by diffusion. A sugar cube in a glass of water that is not stirred will dissolve slowly and the sugar molecules will distribute over the water by diffusion. Atomic diffusion This is the process ...

Down syndrome

... Down syndrome. On the one hand, Down syndrome shows that we cannot jump over genetic limitations; on the other, it shows that education can produce ... and Denmark advise a two-teacher system where the second teacher takes over a group of disabled children within the class. A popular alternative is ...

Enzyme

... is analogous to raising a heavy object by attaching it to a rope that goes over a pulley and attaches to a weight which is lowered; the second weight must ... and their associated genes. Cytochrome P450 enzymes site lists over 4000 versions of enzymes from this cytochrome in plants and animals ...

Extinction

... pollution renders its entire habitat unlivable; or may occur gradually over thousands or millions of years, such as when a species gradually loses out ... members through contamination or sterilizing them. It can also occur over longer periods at lower toxicity levels by affecting life span, ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... experimentally determined factor, K Proportional to the surface area over which diffusion is taking place, A Proportional to the difference in ... the membrane , P 2 - P 1 Inversely proportional to the distance over which diffusion must take place, or in other words the thickness of the ...

Gene

... of genes in part by increasing or decreasing their rate of transcription. over the short term, this regulation occurs through the binding or unbinding ... replication may lead to the duplication of a gene, which may diverge over time. Though the two sequences may remain the same or be only slightly ...

Genetic drift

... with natural selection to change the characteristics of species over time. It is a stochastic effect that arises from the role of random ... have a finite lifetime. As the frequency of an allele drifts up and down over successive generations, eventually it drifts till fixation - that is, it ...

Gregor Mendel

... Society of Brunn , it had little impact, and was cited about three times over the next thirty-five years. Mendel died on January 6 , 1884 in Brno ... linkage quickly worked out. However, a period of tense argument ensued over its significance between William Bateson and Karl Pearson . Ronald ...

Hermaphrodite

... size, this strategy makes sense for an organism (fishes in general) where over 90% of the eggs laid will not result in a fish that reaches sexual ... the male, and which acts as the female, through multiple matings, usually over several nights. Gonadal dysgenesis , a type of intersexuality ...

Ichthyology

... the Historia Piscium of John Ray and Francis Willughby described over 400 species. The title "father of ichthyology" belongs to Peter Artedi ... the Fishes of the British Museum between 1859 and 1870 , describing over 6,800 species and mentioning another 1,700. The greatest ichthyologist ...
Other Contents
(Date:9/17/2014)... on a Carnegie expedition in Australia,s Great Barrier Reef ... since the mid-1970s. The scientists suggest that ocean acidification ... slowdown. , In a quest for historical context ... current measurements of the growth rate of a section ... more than 30 years ago. Their work is published ...
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