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Out in Biological Definition

Apoptosis

... from acute tissue injury, apoptosis is carried out in an ordered process that generally confers ... hijacking of the cell's genetic system carried out by human papillomaviruses (HPV), a gene called ... Thibert et al. ) Research like the one carried out by Thibert and her colleagues has begun to ...

Charles Darwin

... in classics, maths and physics, coming 10th out of a pass list of 178. Although he had gained ... findings to date on Darwin's fossils, pointing out the inference that extinct species were related ... yet unmarried Emma , and his uncle Jos pointed out an area of ground where cinders had disappeared ...

Dialysis

... passed through a tube into a machine that filters out waste products. The cleansed blood is then ... patient's abdomen, running from the peritoneum out to the surface, near the navel . This is done as ... and therefore the amount of water that diffuses out of the bloodstream. Common strengths of glucose ...

DNA

... and the transferred S characteristics turned out to be heritable. In 1944 , the renowned ... plan" and also how that plan was carried out through the "builder's craft." Francis Crick , ... et al., took up the physicist's challenge to work out the structure of the chromosomes and the question ...

Eugenics

... Galton's theory, which he first sketched out in his 1865 article "Hereditary Talent and ... to the more ghastly experiments carried out by Josef Mengele for Otmar von Verschuer on ... counseling , a career change which initially grew out of his eugenic interests (promoting "healthy ...

Experimental evolution

... what brought about the adaptations and to find out how exactly these mutations work. Because of the ... evolution experiments are typically carried out with microorganisms such as bacteria or ... human history Unwittingly, humans have carried out evolution experiments for as long as they have ...

Extinction

... to a new environment where it can do so, dies out and becomes extinct. Extinction of a species may ... when an otherwise healthy species is wiped out completely, as when toxic pollution renders its ... of years, such as when a species gradually loses out competition for food to newer, better adapted ...

Photosynthesis

... purple membranes dropped as protons were pumping out of the membranes! The ATP and NADPH produced by ... and burned a candle in it, the candle would burn out very quickly, much before it ran out of wax. He further discovered that a mouse could ...

Kidney

... Due to pressure, fluid in the blood is forced out of the glomerulus, through these three layers and ... renal pelvis accepts the urine and channels it out of the hilus into the ureter . ureter : A ... 4 mm in diameter. Passing from the renal pelvis out of the hilus and down to the bladder . The ...

Lung

... As a result, air is sucked into and pushed out of the lungs through the trachea and the bronchial tubes or bronchi; these branch out and end in alveoli which are tiny sacs ... used in medicine in arterial blood filter out small blood clots formed in the systemic veins ...

Nutrition

... a narrowly focussed diet, even if that diet sets out to avoid dangerous foodstuffs such as saturated ... scurvy; there was a veritable plague. It turned out that the vast majority of sufferers were being ... However, the holistic model of nutrition points out that for example high energy needs can be met in ...

Parthenogenesis

... lineage is more likely to be completely wiped out by it. In contrast, a lineage that reproduces ... when estrogen levels are high. Lizards that act out the courtship ritual have greater fecundity ... may be due to the rare (perhaps only one mating out of a million) actual fertilization of eggs by a ...

Photosynthesis

... purple membranes dropped as protons were pumping out of the membranes! The ATP and NADPH produced by ... and burned a candle in it, the candle would burn out very quickly, much before it ran out of wax. He further discovered that a mouse could ...

Rudolf Steiner

... cooperative forms of business, all working partly out of Steiner’s social ideas. One example is ... to Steiner, a real spiritual world exists out of which the material one gradually condensed, so ... results, i.e. the thoughts that crystallized out of that process. He often said there was a ...

Sociobiology

... of their own kind, the altruists tend to die out and the others tend to grow. In other words, ... still less a right wing one. They pointed out that Wilson had personally adopted a number of ... this kind of research usually centers on pointing out that these theories often include only those ...

Thermoregulation

... provide far more heat than the whole amount given out by the body. Also it must be remembered that the ... and the lungs. The more air that passes in and out of the lungs in a given time, the greater the ... from its burrow and later the entire body comes out of its hiding place and basks in the sun to aborb ...

Vacuole

... contractile vacuole is used to pump excess water out of the cell to reduce osmotic pressure and keep ... the tonoplast control the flow of water into and out of the vacuole by active transport , pumping ions of potassium (K + ) into and out of the interior liquid. Because of osmosis , ...

Y chromosome

... same time, chromosome pairs swap damaged genes out and replace them with a copy of undamaged genes. ... Errors not caught by this technique are weeded out over time through natural selection. Until ... a role in the ability of the Y chromosome to edit out genetic mistakes and maintain the integrity of ...

Abiogenesis

... abiogenesis" for clarity) held that living organisms could be "born" out of decaying organic substances, et cetera, which we now know does not ... in a series of stages from non-living matter. Such scientists pointed out that the disproof of Aristotelian abiogenesis applied only to "known ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... each molecule of glucose. The terminal stages of ATP synthesis are carried out in the mitochondrion and can generate up to 36 ATP. ATP in the human ... a variety of enzymes , motor proteins , and transport proteins to carry out the work of the cell. Also, the hydrolysis yields free inorganic ...

Alternative splicing

... other exons. Intron retaining mode : in this case, instead of splicing out an intron, the intron is retained in the mRNA transcript. However, the ... Exon cassette mode : in this case, certain exons are spliced out to alter the sequence of amino acids in the expressed protein. ...

Antibiotic

... revealed a hitherto unknown level of chemical warfare being carried out against bacteria. New antibiotics were rapidly discovered and came into ... to make animals grow faster. Opponents of this practice, however, point out the likelihood that it also leads to antibiotic resistance, frequently in ...

Biodiversity

... monoculture following deforestation ). Before 1992, others pointed out that no property rights or no access regulation of resources necessarily ... Sean Nee , writing in the 24 June 2004 edition of Nature , points out that the vast majority of Earth's biodiversity is microbial, and that ...

Bone

... occupy is known as a lacuna. Osteocytes have many processes which reach out to meet osteoblasts probably for the purposes of communication. Their ... main bone material. In the event of a broken bone, the cells are brought out of semi- stasis to repair the matrix. Matrix comprises the other major ...

Cryptozoology

... to have a real basis in biological fact. Cryptozoologists often point out that natives often know a great deal more about their immediate ... to have been extinct for 300 million years. Cryptozoologists point these out to demonstrate that there are many unexplored regions of the world left, ...

Diabetes mellitus

... considered to be above 300 mg/dl) water will be osmotically driven out of cells into the blood. The kidneys will also be "dumping" glucose into ... that the body's cells may become directly affected as water is drawn out from them. Electrolyte imbalances are also common. This combination of ...

Digital organism

... with each other and try to stop the opponent from executing . It turned out that one of the winning strategies was to replicate as fast as ... did not observe the evolution of complex and stable programs. It turned out that the programming language in which core world programs were written ...

Escherichia coli

... otherwise harmless E. coli can cause illness: When the bacteria get out of the intestinal tract and into the urinary tract , they can cause an ... in many cases the initiating event is unclear. When the bacteria get out of the intestinal tract through a perforation (= a hole or tear, which ...

Ebola

... of monkeys traded throughout the world for experimental purposes. Three out of the four Japanese airlines that transport monkeys throughout the world ... impossible to detect very many trends that it causes. Ebola first appeared out of nowhere in 1976 and disappeared until 1989 (Draper 6). It is ...

Warm-blooded

... the warm cold business has been studied in closer detail. It turns out that the cold blooded animals all use behavioral means to adjust their ... to overheat they will go to the entrances to the nest and fan air in and out of the nest to cool it. In winter if the nest becomes too cold, they will ...

Cell membrane

... permeable. This means that only some molecules can pass unhindered in or out of the cell. These molecules are either small or lipophilic . Other molecules can pass in or out of the cell, if there are specific transport molecules. Depending on the ...

Gene therapy

... contains instructions to produce these viruses. The host cell will carry out these intructions and produce the viruses. This is how viruses spread, in ... copy from an RNA molecule is termed reverse transcription . It is carried out by one of the enzymes carried in the virus, called reverse transcriptase ....

Genetic fingerprinting

... known as the prosecutor's fallacy . Nowadays, more testing is carried out so that the theoretical risk of a coincidental match is 1 in 100 billion ... His DNA was tested on three occasions, never showing a match. It turned out that he had surgically inserted a Penrose drain into his arm and filled ...

Genetics

... used and continue to use to perpetuate themselves. This definition grows out of work on the origin of life , specifically the RNA world hypothesis . ... of large set of data. Closely-related fields The science which grew out of the union of biochemistry and genetics is widely known as molecular ...

Human

... at around ten billion during the 21st century . As of 2004 , around 2.5 out of 6.3 billion people live in urban centers, and this is expected to ... evolved in Africa over 150,000 years ago; modern humans began to move out of Africa less than 100,000 years ago. Australia was colonized 70,000 ...

Intron

... not encode part of the protein that the gene produces, and are spliced out of the mRNA that is transcribed from the gene before it is exported ... actually ribozymes that are capable of catalyzing their own splicing out of the primary RNA transcript. They remove themselves on their own. The ...

Liver

... Physiology The various functions of the liver are carried out by the liver cells or hepatocytes . The liver produces and excretes ... on the donor, and indeed there have been at least two donor deaths out of the first several hundred cases. Analogous organs Arthropods ...

Lipid

... the basis of cellular membranes. Micelles and bilayers separate out from the polar milieu by a process known as the "hydrophobic effect." When ... dissolved nonpolar molecule. However, when the nonpolar molecules separate out from the polar liquid, the entropy (state of disorder) of the polar ...

Malaria

... red blood cells . There they multiply further, periodically breaking out of the red blood cells. The classical description of waves of fever coming ... three or four days arises from simultaneous waves of merozoites breaking out of red blood cells during the same day. The parasite is relatively ...

Nephron

... and soluble substances (especially ions ) in the body by filtering it all out first, reabsorbing what should be kept and excreting the rest. This is a ... The distal tubule is similar to the proximal tubule. Salt is pumped out and water follows by osmosis . After travelling through the distal ...
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