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Offspring in Biological Definition

Reproduction

... unless raised in an artificial environment, most offspring do not survive to adults . A rabbit (mature after 8 months) produces 10 - 30 offspring per year, a Nile Crocodile (15 years) produces ... can be favoured by evolution : animals with few offspring can spend time nurturing and protecting them, ...

Genetic drift

... the role of random sampling in the production of offspring . Like selection, it acts on populations , ... Therefore the frequency of an allele among the offspring often differs from its frequency in the parent generation. In the offspring generation, the allele might therefore have a ...

Genetic recombination

... which the combination of genes in an organism's offspring becomes different from the combination of genes ... alleles are different. This process explains why offspring from the same parents can look so different. In ... the fact that two alleles appear together in one offspring does not have any influence on the statistical ...

Muller's ratchet

... of insects, which is only transmitted to offspring from the mother. Another example is ... allows most plants and animals to create offspring with good copies of two genes via crossover. ... the gene, a mating of these animals can produce offspring with the advantageous mutation and without the ...

Natural selection

... If a particular variation makes the offspring which manifest it better suited to survival or to successful reproduction, that offspring and its descendants will be more likely to survive than those offspring without the variation. The original traits, as ...

Parthenogenesis

... which may have both benefits and costs, is that offspring are typically genetically identical or nearly ... parthenogensis is gynogenesis . In gynogenesis, offspring are produced by the same mechanism as in ... material to the offspring. But when the female offspring produce their own eggs, the eggs contain no ...

Reproduction

... unless raised in an artificial environment, most offspring do not survive to adults . A rabbit (mature after 8 months) produces 10 - 30 offspring per year, a Nile Crocodile (15 years) produces ... can be favoured by evolution : animals with few offspring can spend time nurturing and protecting them, ...

Species

... If these variable traits are heritable, then the offspring of the survivors will also possess them. Thus, ... members of one population can produce fertile offspring with a second population, and members of the second population can produce fertile offspring with members of a third population, but members ...

Gene

... Genes are entities that parents pass to offspring during reproduction . These entities encode information essential ... RNA genes . All living organisms carry their genes and transmit them to offspring as DNA, but some viruses carry only RNA. Because they use RNA, their ...

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

... their own lifetimes and transmit traits they acquire to their offspring. offspring then adapt from where the parents left off, enabling evolution to advance. ... needs were deemed to be passed on. Nowadays, the idea of passing on to offspring characteristics that were acquired during an organism's lifetime is called ...

Life

... that of descent with modification: the ability of a life form to produce offspring that are like its parent or parents, but with the possibility of some ... by itself to allow evolution , assuming that the variations in the offspring allow for differential survival. The study of this form of heritability is ...

Allele

... phenotype . An example of this would be seen if, when crossing flowers with codominant "blue" and "purple" alleles for petal color, the resulting offspring would have violet petals. Another exception is co-dominance , where both alleles are active and both traits are expressed at the same time; for ...

Epigenetics

... nuclear DNA . This includes the study of how environmental factors affecting a parent can result in changes in the way genes are expressed in the offspring (see Waterland citation). In both cases, the object of study includes how gene regulatory information that is not expressed in DNA sequences is ...

Eugenics

... of "hereditary and incurable drunkards, sexual criminals, lunatics, and those suffering from an incurable disease which would be passed on to their offspring . . ." [1] Sweden forcibly sterilized 62,000 "unfits" as part of a eugenics program over a forty year period. Similar incidents occurred in ...

Gamete

... individual will contain one copy of the chromosome set from the sperm and one copy of the chromosome set from the egg—that is, the cells of the offspring will have genes expressing characteristics of both the "father" and the "mother". A gamete's chromosomes are not exact duplicates of either of the ...

Gregor Mendel

... was "designed to support or to illustrate Lamarck's views concerning the influence of environment upon plants." He found that the plants' respective offspring retained the essential traits of the parents, and therefore were not influenced by the environment. This simple test gave birth to the idea of ...

Hepatitis B

... most common. Without intervention, a mother who is positive for the Hepatitis B surface antigen confers a 20% risk of passing the infection to her offspring at the time of birth. This risk is as high as 90% if the mother is also positive for the Hepatitis B e antigen. Roughly 16-40% of unimmunized ...

Mendelian inheritance

... of the parent's "essence" and that they somehow blended together to form the pattern for the offspring. This theory accounted for the fact that offspring tended to resemble their parents without all members of a population eventually averaging themselves out. Mendel proposed instead a theory of ...

Molecular evolution

... instead to events that are unrelated to inherited traits. This is especially important in small mating populations, which simply cannot have enough offspring to maintain the same gene distribution as the parental generation. Gene flow : or gene admixture is the only one of the agents that makes ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... must arise within one of the many sex cells that an individual carries. Then only if that sex cell participates in the genesis of an embryo and offspring does the mutation contribute a new allele to the population. Neutral substitutions create new neutral alleles. Through drift, these new alleles may ...

Red Queen

... likely future population of parasites. Sex is an evolutionary puzzle. In most sexual species, males make up half the population, yet they bear no offspring directly and generally contribute little to the survival of offspring. In addition, males and females must find each other to mate, and sexual ...

Sociobiology

... is displaced. Female infanticide and fetal resorption are active areas of study. In general, females with more bearing opportunities may value offspring less. Also, females may arrange bearing opportunities to maximize the food and protection from mates. Criminality is actively under study, but ...

Sperm

... grow into a new organism, such as a human. Sperm cells contain half of the genetic information needed to create life. Generally, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm, through the chromosomal pair "XX" (for a female ) or "XY" (for a male ). Sperm cells were first observed by Antoni ...
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