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Nucleus in Biological Definition

Apoptosis

... molecules, an event that sends signals from the nucleus for the mitochondrion to start the apoptotic ... ( DNA and its packaging proteins ) in the cell nucleus ) undergoes initial degradation and condensation ... stage, the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus still appears complete; however, as observed by ...

Cell nucleus

... In cell biology , the nucleus (from Latin nucleus or nuculeus , kernel) is an organelle , found ... regulates and facilitates transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, while separating the chemical ...

Cloning

... somatic cell nuclear transfer in which the nucleus is removed from an egg cell and replaced with a nucleus extracted from a cell of the organism to be ... both the egg cell and its transplanted nucleus must be from the same species). As ...

Eukaryote

... are ultimately derived from such vesicles. The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane, with pores ... origins have also been proposed for the nucleus and eukaryotic flagella , but this is not ... mitosis , a process which allows each daughter nucleus to receive one copy of each chromosome. In most ...

Mitosis

... cells. This process assures that each daughter nucleus receives a complete copy of the organism's ... G2, the second growth phase; and M, where the nucleus divides through mitosis. Mitosis is divided into ... the changes which occur in the centrosomes and nucleus of a cell in the process of mitotic division. ...

Signal transduction

... pass through the nuclear membrane into the nucleus and enable the production of a certain gene ... sequence which enables its passage into the nucleus is accessible. Steroid receptors can also have ... . These receptors are located in the nucleus and are not accompanied by chaperone proteins ....

Mitosis

... cells. This process assures that each daughter nucleus receives a complete copy of the organism's ... G2, the second growth phase; and M, where the nucleus divides through mitosis. Mitosis is divided into ... the changes which occur in the centrosomes and nucleus of a cell in the process of mitotic division. ...

Archaea

... arose through fusion of an archaean and eubacterium, which became the nucleus and cytoplasm, which accounts for various genetic similarities but runs ... ISBN 0-19-511183-4 Lake, J.A. (1988). Origin of the eukaryotic nucleus determined by rate-invariant analysis of rRNA sequences. Nature 331 ...

Gene therapy

... transcriptase . After this DNA copy is produced and is free in the nucleus of the host cell, it must be incorporated into the genome of the host ... into the host cells genetic material. The DNA molecule is left free in the nucleus of the host cell, and the instructions in this extra DNA molecule are ...

Prokaryote

... are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular ) organisms without a nucleus . The name prokaryote comes from the Greek pros meaning before and ... in many ways. The defining characteristic is, of course, the absence of a nucleus or nuclear envelope . Prokaryotes also lack cytoskeletons and ...

Trait

... also be followed through the Cell as it travels from the DNA in the nucleus , to the Cytoplasm , to the Ribosomes and the Endoplasmic Reticulum , ... being identified is referred to as a quantitative trait locus . The nucleus of a diploid cell contains two of each chromosome, with homologous ...

Alga

... were probably retained from an ingested green alga. Those of the chlorarchniophytes contain a small nucleomorph, which is the remnant of the alga's nucleus . It has been suggested that the euglenid chloroplasts only have three membranes because they were acquired through myzocytosis rather than ...

Bacterium

... ) are a major group of living organisms . They are microscopic and mostly unicellular, with a relatively simple cell structure lacking a cell nucleus , cytoskeleton, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts . Their cell structure is further described in the article about prokaryotes ...

Blood

... human arterial blood is approximately 7.40. The corpuscles are: Red blood cells or erythrocytes (96%). In mammals, these corpuscles lack a nucleus and organelles , so are not cells strictly speaking. They contain the blood's hemoglobin and distribute oxygen. The red blood cells (together ...

Brain

... pineal gland thalamus hypothalamus pituitary gland telencephalon archipallium basal ganglia caudate nucleus substantia nigra striatum amygdalar cortices paleopallium piriform cortex olfactory bulb amygdalar cortices ...

Cell biology

... Cytoskeleton Endoplasmic reticulum Flagella Glycolysis Golgi apparatus Lipid bilayer Membrane Mitochondrion nucleus Organelle Passive transport Ribosome Signal transduction Vesicle Important publications in cell biology External ...

Chromatin

... of chromatin can be distinguished: Euchromatin Heterochromatin Chromatin is the extended form of DNA-protein complex present in the nucleus during interphase in eukaryotic cells. It can be made visible by staining (thus the name which literaly means coloured material). The nucleic acids ...

Chromosome

... and other intervening nucleotide sequences . In the chromosomes of eukaryotes , the uncondensed DNA exists in a quasi-ordered structure inside the nucleus , where it wraps around histones (structural proteins , Fig. 1), and where this composite material is called chromatin . During mitosis (cell ...

Cytoplasm

... within the cell 's plasma membrane , in which organelles are suspended. In contrast to the protoplasm , the cytoplasm does not include the cell nucleus , the interior of which is made up of nucleoplasm . Components of the cytoplasm The aqueous component of the cytoplasm (making up 80 ...

DNA

... . In the complex cells that make up plants , animals and in other multi-celled organisms , by contrast, most of the DNA is located in the cell nucleus . The energy -generating organelles known as chloroplasts and mitochondria also carry DNA, as do many viruses . Contents ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... 1.2 Smooth ER 2 Functions 2.1 Transport of proteins 2.2 Other functions Structure Figure 1 : Image of nucleus , endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. (1) Nucleus. (2) Nuclear pore. (3) Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). (4) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum ...

Endomembrane system

... its environment and regulates the transport of molecules and signals into and out of the cell. The nuclear envelope is the membrane around the nucleus of the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum is a synthesis and transport organelle [the endoplasmic reticulum is an extension of the nuclear ...

Endosymbiotic theory

... DNA sequence analysis and phylogeny suggests that nuclear DNA contains genes that probably came from the chloroplast. Some genes encoded in the nucleus are transported to the organelle, and both mitochondria and chloroplasts have unusually small genomes compared to other organisms. This is consistent ...

Bacterium

... ) are a major group of living organisms . They are microscopic and mostly unicellular, with a relatively simple cell structure lacking a cell nucleus , cytoskeleton, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts . Their cell structure is further described in the article about prokaryotes ...

Golgi apparatus

... tends to be more prominent where there are a lot of substances, such as enzymes , being secreted. Structure Figure 1: Image of nucleus , endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus: (1) Nucleus, (2) Nuclear pore, (3) Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), (4) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum ...

Intron

... of the protein that the gene produces, and are spliced out of the mRNA that is transcribed from the gene before it is exported from the cell nucleus . Introns exist mainly (but not only) in eukaryotic cells . The regions of a gene that remain in the spliced mRNA are called exons . Introns ...

Nucleoplasm

... Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell , the nucleus contains nucleoplasm . The nucleoplasm is a highly viscous solid containing the chromosomes and nucleoli. Chromosomes contain information ...

Mitochondrion

... in humans) that are integrated into the inner mitochondrial membrane, along with polypeptides encoded by genes that reside in the host cell's nucleus . Mitochondrial functions Although the primary function of mitochondria is to convert organic materials into cellular energy in the form of ...

Mitochondrion

... in humans) that are integrated into the inner mitochondrial membrane, along with polypeptides encoded by genes that reside in the host cell's nucleus . Mitochondrial functions Although the primary function of mitochondria is to convert organic materials into cellular energy in the form of ...

Muscle

... senses. Several areas in the brain coordinate movement and position with the feedback information gained from proprioception. The cerebellum and nucleus ruber in particular continuously sample position against movement and make minor corrections to assure a smooth projection. Role in health and ...

Neuron

... are typically only about a micrometre thick, while the soma is usually about 25 micrometres in diameter and not much larger than than the cell nucleus it contains. The axon of a human motoneuron can be over a metre long, reaching from the base of the spine to the toes. Connectivity Neurons ...

Nucleolus

... In biology , the nucleolus is, strictly speaking, a "suborganelle" of the cell nucleus , which is an organelle . It is a consequence of ribosomal RNA ( rRNA ) synthesis: nucleolar organizers , special regions on some chromosomes ...

Nucleon

... Nucleon is the common name used in nuclear chemistry to refer to a neutron or a proton , the components of an atom 's nucleus . The total number of nucleons in an atom is the mass number on the atom, as nucleons each have a mass very close to one amu . See also ...

Nucleosome

... A nucleosome is the fundamental repeating subunit of eukayotic DNA , and is made up of DNA and histone proteins. It is found in the cell nucleus in eukaryotes . All chromatin (except for that packaged in the sperm nucleus) consists of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes can be seen with an ...

Organelle

... Other organelles include: centriole endoplasmic reticulum golgi apparatus lysosome myofibril plastids nucleus peroxisome ribosome vacuole vesicle melanosome Other related structures: flagellum cytosol endomembrane ...

Paternity testing

... from the genetic material of their parents. This genetic material is known as the nuclear genome of the individual, because it is found in the nucleus . Comparing the DNA sequence of an individual to that of another individual can show if one of them was derived from the other or not. Specific ...

Alga

... were probably retained from an ingested green alga. Those of the chlorarchniophytes contain a small nucleomorph, which is the remnant of the alga's nucleus . It has been suggested that the euglenid chloroplasts only have three membranes because they were acquired through myzocytosis rather than ...

RNA

... information from DNA to the ribosome sites of protein synthesis in the cell. Once mRNA has been transcribed from DNA, it is exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm (in eukaryotes mRNA is "processed" before being exported), where it is bound to ribosomes and translated into protein. After a ...

Ribosome

... Membrane bound ribosomes When certain proteins are synthesized by a ribosome, it can become "membrane-bound", associated with the membrane of the nucleus and the rough endoplasmic reticulum (in eukaryotes only) for the time of synthesis. They insert the freshly produced polypeptide chains directly ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... 1.2 Smooth ER 2 Functions 2.1 Transport of proteins 2.2 Other functions Structure Figure 1 : Image of nucleus , endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. (1) Nucleus. (2) Nuclear pore. (3) Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). (4) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum ...
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