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Nucleotide in Biological Definition

BLAST

... extremely fast alternative to BLAST that compares nucleotide sequences to the genome is BLAT ( B last L ike ... six-frame conceptual translation products of a nucleotide query sequence (both strands) against a protein ... family. It translates both query and target nucleotide sequences in all six possible frames and compares ...

Genetic code

... , each coding for a single amino acid. Each nucleotide sub-unit consists of a phosphate , deoxyribose sugar and one of the 4 nitrogenous nucleotide bases grouped into 2 categories, purine and ... amino acids long. ( DNA is also a sequence of nucleotide bases, but there thymine takes the place of ...

DNA

... Because DNA strands are composed of these nucleotide subunits, they are polymers . The diversity ... a nonliving system. Because pairing causes the nucleotide bases to face the helical axis, the sugar and ... the phosphates and the sugars that link one nucleotide to the next in the DNA strand. The role of ...

Genetic code

... , each coding for a single amino acid. Each nucleotide sub-unit consists of a phosphate , deoxyribose sugar and one of the 4 nitrogenous nucleotide bases grouped into 2 categories, purine and ... amino acids long. ( DNA is also a sequence of nucleotide bases, but there thymine takes the place of ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... of existing species, the vast majority of single- nucleotide differences are selectively "neutral." That is, ... through the spontaneous mutation of a single nucleotide within the sequence of a gene. In single-celled ... reproducing , multicellular organisms, the nucleotide substitution must arise within one of the many ...

Nucleotide

... nucleotide codes Code Equivalence Complement ... V X or N A or C or G or T X A nucleotide is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as RNA and DNA ...

Primer

... (DMT), which prevents the building of a nucleotide chain. To add a nucleotide, DMT is chemically removed, and the nucleotide is added. The 5'-hydroxyl of the new nucleotide is blocked by DMT, preventing the addition of ...

AMP

... abbreviation AMP can refer to the following: In biology , the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate As a flavour enhancer , the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate AngryMutantPenguin, a famous fan of The ...

Gene

... sequence of the amino acids that make up a protein. The coding of a three nucleotide DNA sequence to a specific amino acid is essentially the same for all ... complex process helps explain the different meanings of "gene": a nucleotide sequence in a DNA strand; or the transcribed RNA, prior to splicing; ...

Human Genome Project

... Genome Project (HGP) endeavored to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair ) level and to identify all the genes present in it. ... effort in identifying differences between individuals involves single nucleotide polymorphisms . Benefits Clear practical results of the project ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... NADP with the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the nucleotide through an ester linkage. NADP is produced in the preliminary cycles of ... of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide. See also Adenine nucleotide References and external links NAD and NADP Nicotinamide ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... NADP with the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the nucleotide through an ester linkage. NADP is produced in the preliminary cycles of ... of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide. See also Adenine nucleotide References and external links NAD and NADP Nicotinamide ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... NADP with the addition of a phosphate group to the 2' position of the nucleotide through an ester linkage. NADP is produced in the preliminary cycles of ... of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide. See also Adenine nucleotide References and external links NAD and NADP Nicotinamide ...

Primary structure

... of DNA , RNA or protein , is to name the species of every subunit ( nucleotide or amino acid ) in order from the beginning to the end of the molecule to obtain either nucleotide or peptide sequence . The primary structure, in other words, is a ...

Promoter

... 2.1 Prokaryotic promoters 2.1.1 Probability of occurrence of each nucleotide 2.2 Eukaryotic promoters 3 Binding 4 Diseases ... Gene to be transcribed Probability of occurrence of each nucleotide T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% T T G ...

Restriction enzyme

... enzyme cuts only double-helical segments that contain a particular nucleotide sequence , and it makes its incisions only within that sequence--known as ... arrange the four nucleotides--A,C,G and T--into a four or eight or twelve nucleotide sequence, recognition sequences tend to "crop up" by chance in any long ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... For other uses of the initials ATP, see ATP (disambiguation) Adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the " molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical ...

Anticodon

... complementary to specific codons on a strand of mRNA . See also protein synthesis . The first base on the anticodon can be modified to another nucleotide such as inosine which allows that base to pair with cytosine , adenine , and uracil on the codon. The first base on the anticodon can also ...

Cell nucleus

... a liquid with a gel-like consistency (similar in this respect to the cytoplasm ), in which many substances are dissolved. These substances include nucleotide triphospates, enzymes , proteins , and transcription factors . Genetic material ( DNA ) is also present in the nucleus, the DNA is present as a ...

Chromosome

... and soma = body) is, minimally, a very long, continuous piece of DNA , which contains many genes , regulatory elements and other intervening nucleotide sequences . In the chromosomes of eukaryotes , the uncondensed DNA exists in a quasi-ordered structure inside the nucleus , where it wraps around ...

DNA sequence

... primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A , C , G , and T , representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand ( adenine , cytosine , guanine , thymine ), and typically these are printed abutting one another without gaps, as in the ...

Flaviviridae

... is a monopartite, linear, single-stranded RNA of positive sense that is 10,000-11,000 nucleotides long. The 5'-terminus carries a methylated nucleotide cap or a genome-linked protein. The virus itself is enveloped and spherical, about 40-60 nm in diameter. ...

Intermembrane space

... intermembrane space is the region between the inner membrane and the outer membrane of a mitochondrion or a chloroplast . Its main function is nucleotide phosphorylation . Channel proteins called porins in the outer membrane allow free movement of ions and small molecules into the intermembrane ...

Isozyme

... for this purpose. Although they have now been largely superseded by more informative DNA -based approaches (such as direct DNA sequencing , Single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites ), they are still amongst the quickest and cheapest marker systems to develop, and remain (as of 2005 ) an ...

Nucleoside

... triphosphates are the energy rich end products of the majority of biochemical energy releasing pathways. See also Nucleobase nucleotide DNA RNA Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... 3' end of the allele-specific primer is modified, to only anneal if it matches one of the alleles. If the mutation of interest is a T or C single nucleotide polymorphism (T/C SNP), one would use two reactions, one containing a primer ending in T, and the other ending in C. The common primer would be the ...

Purine

... down purines. Purines are biologically synthesized as nucleotides (bases attached to ribose ). Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide inosine monophosphate, which is synthesized on a pre-existing ribose through a complex pathway using atoms from the amino acids glycine , ...

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

... fragment length polymorphism (or RFLP ) is used in two related contexts: as a characteristic of DNA molecules (arising from their differing nucleotide sequences) by which they may be distinguished, and as the laboratory technique which uses this characteristic to compare DNA molecules. The ...

RNA

... RNA is encoded is called the template strand ; the opposite strand is called the coding strand (so called because it logically has the equivalent nucleotide sequence of the new RNA strand). A small stretch of DNA-RNA hybrid is present at the active site of the enzyme. The synthesis continues until a ...

Secondary structure

... by helices). Another reasonable definition of secondary structure of RNA is that it defines which nucleotides bind each other, and, for example, nucleotide pairs that are bound form helices. RNA secondary structure can also include pseudoknots and base triples. For many RNA molecules, the secondary ...
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