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Nucleic in Biological Definition

Biophysics

... - angstrom-resolution structures of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and complexes ... and chemistry - biomolecular structure, siRNA, nucleic acid structure, structure-activity ... bioenergetics muscle and contractility nucleic acids photobiophysics and biophotonics ...

Biopolymer

... respectively, are sugars , amino acids , and nucleic acids . The exact chemical composition and the ... carboxylic acid terminus. The convention for a nucleic acid sequence is to list the nucleotides as ... Mass spectrometer techniques can also be used. nucleic acid sequence can be determined using gel ...

DNA

... Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) is a nucleic acid which is capable of carrying genetic ... the process whereby proteins are produced from nucleic DNA. First isolation of DNA Working in the ... 28 . Their paper 'A Structure for Deoxyribose nucleic Acid' was published on April 25 . In an ...

Gel electrophoresis

... scientist. When separating proteins or small nucleic acids ( DNA , RNA , or oligonucleotides ) the ... of polyacrylamide . When separating larger nucleic acids (greater than a few hundred bases ), the ... and the cathode is negative). In the case of nucleic acids, the direction of migration, from negative ...

Gel electrophoresis

... scientist. When separating proteins or small nucleic acids ( DNA , RNA , or oligonucleotides ) the ... of polyacrylamide . When separating larger nucleic acids (greater than a few hundred bases ), the ... and the cathode is negative). In the case of nucleic acids, the direction of migration, from negative ...

Prion

... ( bacteria , viruses , etc.) contained nucleic acids that are necessary for reproduction. The ... resisted ultraviolet radiation (which breaks down nucleic acids), yet responded to agents that disrupt ... ", which asserts that all living organisms use nucleic acids to reproduce. Prusiner's idea — that ...

Virus

... Typically these particles carry a small amount of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA ) surrounded by some ... and, anatomy Virus particles comprise a nucleic acid genome , that may be either DNA or RNA , ... in length. This complex of protein and nucleic acid is called the nucleocapsid, and, in the case ...

Biochemistry

... of cellular components , such as proteins , carbohydrates , lipids , nucleic acids , and other biomolecules . Recently biochemistry has focused more ... Lipids Proteins and Amino acids DNA , RNA and nucleic acids This paragraph needs to be moved to Talk Page: There seems ...

Chromatin

... by staining (thus the name which literaly means coloured material). The nucleic acids are generally in the form of double-stranded DNA. The major ... by staining (thus the name which literaly means coloured material). The nucleic acids are generally in the form of double-stranded DNA. The major proteins ...

Evolution

... science of DNA genetics. For example, every living thing makes use of nucleic acids as its genetic material, and uses the same twenty amino acids as ... code (with some extremely rare and minor deviations) to translate nucleic acid sequences into proteins. Because the selection of these traits is ...

Life

... contain molecular components such as: carbohydrates , lipids , nucleic acids , and proteins . Living organisms require both energy and ... water based, lipid - protein bound, carbon metabolic, nucleic acid replicated, protein readout system "a system of inferior ...

Nucleotide

... is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as RNA and DNA . A nucleotide consists of a heterocyclic ... Chromosome External links Abbreviations and Symbols for nucleic Acids, Polynucleotides and their Constituents ( IUPAC ) Provisional ...

Protein

... of the classes of bio- macromolecules , alongside polysaccharides and nucleic acids , that make up the primary constituents of living things . They ... therein, as of June 2004 . This database also contains structures of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA , as well as a few carbohydrates . ...

Purine

... refers to substituted purines and their tautomers . Two of the bases in nucleic acids , adenine and guanine , are purines. In DNA , these bases form ... a cause of severe combined immunodeficiency . Purines from turnover of nucleic acids (or from food) can also be salvaged and reused in new nucleotides. ...

RNA

... Ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides . It is ... internal sequences; that is, one part of a single RNA molecule is the nucleic acid complement of another part of the same molecule (for example, 5' ...

Virus classification

... they cause. The most useful classification is probably by the type of nucleic acid the virus contains and its mode of expression. This classification ... Subgroup 2: Tobacco necrosis satellite virus Satellite nucleic acids Single-stranded satellite DNAs Double-stranded satellite RNAs ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells . ATP also plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleic acids . ATP molecules are also used to store the energy plants make in cellular respiration . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") ...

Affinity chromatography

... be omitted or used simply for analytical purposes. Specific Uses Affinity chromatography can be used in a number of applications, including nucleic acid purification, protein purification from cell free extracts and antibody purification from blood serum . Possibly the most common use of ...

Biology

... are based on a common carbon -based biochemistry . All organisms pass on their heredity via the genetic material which is based upon the nucleic acid DNA using a universal genetic code . In development the theme of universal processes is also present, for example in most metazoan ...

Cell metabolism

... energy is consumed to synthesize or combine simpler substances, such as amino acids , into more complex organic compounds, such as enzymes and nucleic acids . Catabolism Catabolism is a type of metabolic process occurring in living cells by which complex molecules are broken down to ...

Enzyme

... can convert hydrogen peroxide or similar compounds Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH): Phospholipase Polymerase : builds long chains of nucleic acid polymers from their constituents Protease (peptidase): those enzymes which cut peptide bonds of proteins Protein kinases : those ...

Francis Crick

... Neural correlate of consciousness External links James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick. "Letters to Nature : Molecular structure of nucleic Acid." Nature 171 , 737738 (1953). An interview with Francis Crick and Christof Koch, 2001 Francis Crick Papers from the Wellcome ...

Genetics

... as the genetic material (at that time called transforming principle ) 1950 Erwin Chargaff shows that the four nucleotides are not present in nucleic acids in stable proportions, but that some general rules appear to hold (e.g., that the amount of adenine, A, tends to be equal to that of thymine, ...

James D. Watson

... on the grounds of the laboratory. Further reading James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick. "Letters to Nature : Molecular structure of nucleic Acid." Nature 171 , 737738 (1953). James D. Watson, The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA , ...

Lytic cycle

... on the virus's surface. The virus then injects its genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA , into the cell. Growth The viral nucleic acid takes over and uses the host cells organelles to make many copies of the virus. In the case of DNA viruses, the DNA transcribes itself into ...

Macromolecule

... atoms, and in particular to polymers . Many examples come from biology and in particular biochemistry . These include proteins , starches , and nucleic acids (such as DNA ), which are sometimes called "biomacromolecules" or biopolymers . Synthetic examples include plastics . The integral ...

Origin of life

... the path that might have been taken from simple organic molecules to protocells, cells, and metabolism. Some of these postulate early appearance of nucleic acids (" genes -first"), whereas the evolution of biochemical reactions and pathways is regarded as moving force of early evolution (" metabolism ...

Primer

... This article is about molecular biology for alternate uses, see primer (disambiguation) . A primer is a nucleic acid strand (or related molecule) that serves as a starting point for DNA replication . A primer is required because most DNA polymerases ( ...

Pyrimidine

... to benzene and pyridine and that contains two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-membered ring. Three nucleobases found in nucleic acids , namely cytosine , thymine , and uracil , are pyrimidine derivatives. In DNA and RNA , these bases form hydrogen bonds with their ...

Retrovirus

... of its genome from RNA into DNA for insertion by integrase into the host's genome. The virus itself is just a storage form for its nucleic acid genome; the reverse transcription takes place in the host's cytosol . The retroviral DNA, when integrated into the host's genome, is termed a ...

Secondary structure

... , turns , and random coil , among other less common structure. Such structures often can be detected by circular dichroism spectroscopy . nucleic acids also have secondary structure, most notably single-stranded RNA molecules. At a higher level, secondary structure generally reflects how ...

Structural biology

... Structural biology is the study of the architecture and shape of biological macromolecules -- proteins and nucleic acids in particular--and what causes them to have the structures they have. This subject is of great interest to biologists, because macromolecules ...
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