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Nitrogen in Biological Definition

Amine

... Amines are organic compounds containing nitrogen as the key atom in the amine functional group. ... by alkyl groups or other groups where the nitrogen is bonded to a carbon atom in the group (groups ... However, if any of the carbons bonded to the nitrogen is part of a carbonyl group, then the compound is ...

Bacterium

... . Other nutritional requirements include nitrogen , sulfur , phosphorus , vitamins and ... microorganisms help in the transformation of nitrogen to ammonia with enzymes secreted by these ... Some bacteria are able to use molecular nitrogen as their source of nitrogen, converting it to ...

Bacterium

... . Other nutritional requirements include nitrogen , sulfur , phosphorus , vitamins and ... microorganisms help in the transformation of nitrogen to ammonia with enzymes secreted by these ... Some bacteria are able to use molecular nitrogen as their source of nitrogen, converting it to ...

Metabolism

... 1.3 Anabolism 1.4 Drug metabolism 1.5 nitrogen metabolism 2 History 3 See also ... system Alcohol metabolism nitrogen metabolism nitrogen metabolism includes the pathways for turnover ...

Osmoregulation

... animals 5 Vertebrate excretory systems 5.1 Waste products of nitrogen metabolism 5.2 How osmoregulation is achieved in vertebrates 6 ... excretory system . Vertebrate excretory systems Waste products of nitrogen metabolism Ammonia is a toxic by-product of protein metabolism and is ...

Pyrimidine

... , which is similar to benzene and pyridine and that contains two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-membered ring. Three ... form hydrogen bonds. See also Pyrazine , an analog with the nitrogen atoms in positions 1 and 4. Simple aromatic rings ...

Amino acid

... . H His Histidine basic 155.16 7.60 1.80 9.33 6.04 In even slightly acidic conditions protonation of the nitrogen occurs, changing the properties of histidine and the polypeptide as a whole. It is used by many proteins as a regulatory mechanism, changing the ...

C4 carbon fixation

... ( C4 plants ). They are competitively superior to plants possessing the more common C3 pathway under the conditions of drought, high temperatures and nitrogen limitation. The C 4 cycle allows for a spacial separation of carbon fixation from respiration, thus allowing C 4 plants to increase concentration ...

Carbohydrate

... from this, such as deoxyribose . Sometimes compounds containing other elements are also counted as carbohydrates (e.g. chitin , which contains nitrogen ). The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides , which are small straight-chain aldehydes and ketones with many hydroxyl groups added, ...

Diffusion

... a balloon can diffuse through the wall of the balloon and escape, resulting in the balloon slowly deflating. Other air molecules (e.g. oxygen , nitrogen ) have lower mobilities and thus diffuse more slowly through the balloon wall. There is a concentration gradient in the balloon wall because the ...

Escherichia coli

... Bacteria in Canadian Pulp and Paper Mill Water Systems - a Cause for Concern? - by Dr. F. Archibald (abstract only) Coliform Bacteria and nitrogen Fixation in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Treatment Systems - by Dr. F. Archibald (full text) Investigation of a UK outbreak by Brian Deer ...

Endosymbiont

... within the body or cells of another organism, i.e. forming an endosymbiosis ( Greek : endo = inner and biosis = living). For instance, some nitrogen fixing bacteria (e.g. in Rhizobium , Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium ) live in plants , reef-building corals contain single-celled ...

Endosymbiont

... within the body or cells of another organism, i.e. forming an endosymbiosis ( Greek : endo = inner and biosis = living). For instance, some nitrogen fixing bacteria (e.g. in Rhizobium , Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium ) live in plants , reef-building corals contain single-celled ...

Heterotroph

... bacteria . Some parasitic plants have also turned fully or partially heterotrophic, whereas carnivorous plants use their flesh diet to augment their nitrogen supply, but are still autotrophic. See also : Primary nutritional groups ...

Insectivore

... including the Venus flytrap , several species of pitcher plants , butterworts , and sundews . They are generally native to poor soils that lack nitrogen , which they obtain by trapping insects. See also: Insectivora ...

Lichen

... protects the alga against drying out and provides it with minerals obtained from the substratum. If a cyanobacterium is present this can fix nitrogen , complementing the activities of the green alga. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Morphology and structure 2 ...

Redox

... 2 OH - overall equation for the above: 2Fe 2+ + H 2 O 2 + 2H + → 2Fe 3+ + 2H 2 O denitrification , nitrate reduces to nitrogen : 2NO 3 - + 10e - + 12 H + → N 2 + 6H 2 O iron(II) oxidises/oxidizes to and oxygen reduces to iron(III) oxide (commonly known as ...

Peptide bond

... together by peptide bonds. The backbone of PNA is also held together by peptide bonds. The C-N bond has a partial double bond character (with the nitrogen atom attaining a partial positive charge and the oxygen atom a partial negative charge) and the molecule can normally not rotate around this bond. ...

Peptide

... single bond, and has a partial double-bond character, because the participating carbon molecule is doubly bonded to an oxygen molecule and the nitrogen has a lone pair of electrons available for bonding. Peptides (like proteins) occur in nature and are responsible for a wide array of functions, ...

Photolysis

... the coenzyme NADP to form NADPH . Photolysis is also a process in the atmosphere by which primary pollutants such as hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide are combined by sunlight to form secondary pollutants such as peroxyacyl nitrates . See photochemical smog . ...

Peptide

... single bond, and has a partial double-bond character, because the participating carbon molecule is doubly bonded to an oxygen molecule and the nitrogen has a lone pair of electrons available for bonding. Peptides (like proteins) occur in nature and are responsible for a wide array of functions, ...

Redox

... 2 OH - overall equation for the above: 2Fe 2+ + H 2 O 2 + 2H + → 2Fe 3+ + 2H 2 O denitrification , nitrate reduces to nitrogen : 2NO 3 - + 10e - + 12 H + → N 2 + 6H 2 O iron(II) oxidises/oxidizes to and oxygen reduces to iron(III) oxide (commonly known as ...

Skin

... centre for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of vitamin D by action of UV on certain parts of the skin. Absorption: Oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide can diffuse into the epidermis in small amounts. Excretion: The concentration of urea is 1/130th than that of urine. ...

Stem cell

... for infectious agents and the tissue-type is determined. The cord blood is processed and depleted of red blood cells before being stored in liquid nitrogen for later use, at which point it is thawed, washed of the cryoprotectant, and injected through a vein of the patient. This kind of treatment, where ...

X-ray crystallography

... This can be a painstaking procedure for macromolecules such as protein and DNA complexes. The crystals are harvested and often frozen with liquid nitrogen . Freezing crystals both reduces radiation damage incurred during data collection and decreases thermal motion within the crystal. Crystals are ...
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