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Neurons in Biological Definition

Axon

... In vertebrates generally, the axons of many neurons are sheathed in myelin , which is formed by ... cells : Schwann cells ensheathing peripheral neurons and oligodendrocytes insulating those of the ... called saltation . The axons of some neurons branch to form axon collaterals , along which the ...

Brain

... made up of two types of cells : glia and neurons . Glia function primarily to support and protect the neurons. The neurons carry information in the form of electrical ... action potentials . They communicate with other neurons in the brain and throughout the body by sending ...

Cell growth

... being investigated. The size of post-mitotic neurons depends on the size of the cell body, axon and ... the motoneuron. Invertebrates often have giant neurons and axons that provide special functions such as ... use myelin to accomplish this, so most human neurons are releatively small. h Other experimental ...

Long-term potentiation

... Scientists generally believed that the number of neurons in the adult brain (roughly 10 11 ) did not ... by strengthening the connections between existing neurons to improve the effectiveness of their ... sound and send it to the brain where it activates neurons that control the man's muscles. But as the ...

Nervous system

... consists basically of two types of cells : neurons are the primary cells of the nervous system ... fibers by way of action potentials Between neurons by way of neurotransmitter diffusion across ... cord . The PNS consists of all other nerves and neurons that do not lie within the CNS. The large ...

Neuron

... neurons (also spelled neurones or called nerve cells ... 6 Histology and internal structure 7 neurons of the brain 8 See also 9 External ... efferent neurons, and interneurons. Afferent neurons convey information from tissues and organs into ...

Olfaction

... use their antennae for olfaction. Sensory neurons in the antenna generate odor-specific electrical ... They process these signals from the sensory neurons in the antennal lobe followed by the mushroom ... horn of the brain. The antennae have the sensory neurons in the sensilla and they have their axons ...

Stem cell

... 3.2.2.1 Embryonic stem cells switched to neurons 3.2.2.2 Stem cell injection restores ability ... into many types of tissue, including neurons , smooth muscle cells and fat-cells. These were ... Spinal cord Embryonic stem cells switched to neurons In Jan. 2005, using stem cells science made ...

Down syndrome

... damage. Some scientists believe that the treatment of Down syndrome neurons with free radical scavengers can substantially prevent neuronal degeneration . Oxidative damage to neurons results in rapid brain aging similar to that of Alzheimer's disease . ...

Electrophysiology

... medium and field-potentials contributed by the action potentials of many neurons are recorded. Some popular clinical applications of extracellular ... detection and measurement of action potentials in excitable cells such as neurons and the beta cells of the pancreas. Voltage-clamp recordings are very ...

Neuroscience

... of study, from the molecular level through the cellular level (individual neurons ), the level of relatively small assemblies of neurons like cortical columns, that of larger subsystems like that which subserves ...

Signal transduction

... the ion channel of the receptor will open and let ions pass through. In neurons , this mechanism underlies the action potential impulses that travel ... cause it to release even more Ca 2+ . It is especially important in neurons and muscle cells . In heart and pancreas cells, another second ...

Synapse

... such as muscles or glands . Synapses form the circuits in which the neurons of the central nervous system interconnect. They are thus crucial to the ... from many others. When action potentials "fire" simultaneously in several neurons that weakly synapse on a single cell, they may initiate an impulse in that ...

Cancer

... Cells that divide at a high rate, such as epithelials , show a higher risk of becoming tumor cells than those which divide less, for example neurons . In cellular model systems , cells are exposed to carcinogenic influences (chemicals, radiation). In these systems, the first signs of a cell ...

Hormone

... inhibited by: Other hormones ( stimulating or releasing -hormones) Plasma concentrations of ions or nutrients, as well as binding globulins neurons and mental activity Environmental changes, e.g. of light or temperature Pharmacology A large number of hormones is used as medication . ...

Insulin

... cells in a typical human body. The brain and hypoglycemia Though other cells can use other fuels for a while (most prominently fatty acids), neurons are dependent on glucose as a source of energy in the non-starving human. They do not require insulin to absorb glucose, unlike muscle and adipose ...

Mathematical biology

... of research in mathematical biology and links to related projects in various universities: Modelling of arterial disease [1] Modelling of neurons and carcinogenesis [2] Mechanics of biological tissues [3] Theoretical enzymology and enzyme kinetics [4] Cancer modelling and ...

Neural plate

... comprised by the spinal cord and the brain . Masses of tissue called the neural crest separate from the neural tube and form the cord's sensory neurons . ...

Proprioception

... 3 Impairment 4 External links Basis The proprioceptive sense is believed to be composed of information from sensory neurons located in the inner ear (motion and orientation) and in the joints and muscles (stance). There are specific nerve receptors for this form of ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... Paroxetine (trade name: Paxil ® , Seroxat ® , Aropax ® ) How they work In the brain , information is passed between two neurons (nerve cells) via a synapse , a small gap between the cells. The neuron that sends the information releases neurotransmitters (with serotonin among ...

Vesicle

... that does the actual digestion, to protect the cell interior from being digested by its own enzyme. Lysosomes are made in the Golgi apparatus. neurons store neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles located at presynaptic terminals. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Transport ...
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