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Muscles in Biological Definition

Muscle

... ; the third type is "smooth": Striated muscles contain sarcomeres cardiac muscle : found ... and used to facilitate movement Smooth muscles do not contain sarcomeres smooth muscle (or ... The differences in characteristics of the smooth muscles and the ...

Thermoregulation

... and if this is estimated it can be shown that the muscles alone during their contractions provide far more ... the "thermogenic tissues." Next to the muscles as heat generators come the various secretory ... for heat loss by: utilizing small smooth muscles (arrector pili in mammals) which are attached to ...

Vestibular system

... that control our eye movements, and to the muscles that keep us upright. The projections to ... for clear vision; and the projections to the muscles that control our posture are necessary to keep us ... the majority of the saccular signals projects to muscles that control our posture. While the ...

Bone

... body structures, protect internal organs , and (in conjunction with muscles ) facilitate movement ; are also involved with cell formation , calcium ... small electrical potentials under stress. Bones can be connected to muscles via tendons and other bones by ligaments . The science of the ...

Cold-blooded

... beneath the sand during the day. Insects that warm their flight muscles by vibrating them in place. Dilating or constricting peripheral blood ... poikilotherms with such organ systems. One example is the swimming muscles of Tuna , which are warmed by a heat exchanger . In general, ...

Skin

... ; which is composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs . Skin is used for insulation , vitamin D production, ... regulation: The skin contains sebaceous glands and smooth arrector pili muscles . Aging and disease As skin ages, it becomes thinner and more ...

Anatomy

... . It is a love sonnet dedicated to describing the parts of a lover 's anatomy, usually female . Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopdie . Anatomy (from the Greek anatome , from ana-temnein , to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the ...

Animal

... With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges (Phylum Porifera), animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues . These include muscles , which are able to contract and control locomotion, and a nervous system , which sends and processes signals. There is also typically an internal ...

Apoptosis

... In 1964 Richard A. Lockshin and Carroll Williams published their contribution on "Endocrine potentiation of the breakdown of the intersegmental muscles of silkmoths" in the Journal of insect physiology (10 p. 643), where they used the concept of "programmed cell death". Unfortulately, though, not ...

Brain

... formulate reactions based on prior experiences and on physical needs. A similarly extensive nerve network delivers signals from a brain to control muscles throughout a body. Sensory input is processed by the brain to recognize danger, find food, and identify potential mates, among other goals. ...

Cancer

... - in bones , ovarian cancer , pancreatic cancer , prostate cancer , renal cell carcinoma - in the kidneys , rhabdomyosarcoma - in muscles , skin cancer (including benign moles and dysplastic nevi ), stomach cancer , testicular cancer , and thyroid cancer . Childhood cancers ...

Cellular respiration

... brewing , and wine making. Lactic acid fermentation breaks the pyruvate down into lactic acid , carbon dioxide, and water. It occurs in the muscles of animals when they need energy faster than the blood can supply oxygen. It also occurs in some bacteria. It is this type of bacteria that convert ...

Warm-blooded

... go to the entrances to the nest and fan air in and out of the nest to cool it. In winter if the nest becomes too cold, they will shiver their wing muscles until they grow warm from their efforts. Any one bee doing this by itself would just get tired for no reason. Done collectively, this will raise the ...

Glucose

... through the intestinal wall . Some of this glucose goes directly to fuel brain cells , while the rest makes its way to the liver and muscles , where it is stored as glycogen ("animal starch"), and to fat cells , where it is stored as fat . Glycogen is the body's auxiliary energy ...

Glycolysis

... by oxygen during oxidative phosphorylation . Although human metabolism is primarily aerobic, under anaerobic conditions, for example in over-worked muscles that are starved for oxygen, pyruvate is converted to lactate, as in many microorganisms. Evolution Glycolysis is the only metabolic pathway ...

Homeostasis

... stress, often generating artificial stresses if the "natural" level of stress is not enough. Examples Thermal regulation : The skeletal muscles can shiver to produce heat if the body temperature is too low. Non-shivering thermogenesis involves the decomposition of fat to produce ....

Insulin

... – forces arterial wall muscle to relax, increasing blood flow, especially in micro arteries; lack of insulin reduces flow by allowing these muscles to contract Regulatory action on blood glucose Despite long intervals between meals or the occasional consumption of meals with a substantial ...

Animal

... With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges (Phylum Porifera), animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues . These include muscles , which are able to contract and control locomotion, and a nervous system , which sends and processes signals. There is also typically an internal ...

Nervous system

... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles , monitors the organs , constructs and processes input from the senses , and initiates actions . (see Central Nervous System ). In animals with ...

Physiology

... Areas of physiology Physiology has several independent subdivisions. Electrophysiology deals with the operation of nerves and muscles ; neurophysiology concerns the physiology of brains and cell physiology addresses the functioning of individual cells . Physiology also has ...

Proprioception

... sense is believed to be composed of information from sensory neurons located in the inner ear (motion and orientation) and in the joints and muscles (stance). There are specific nerve receptors for this form of perception, just like there are specific receptors for pressure, light/dark, ...

Protein

... collagen and keratin are components of skin, hair, and cartilage . Another class are the motor proteins such as myosin , kinesin, and dynein. muscles are composed largely of the proteins myosin and actin . Working with proteins Proteins can be picky about the environment in which they ...

Signal transduction

... its surface, its body may be heated or cooled, it may be struck by light of various wavelengths, stretched, sheared or electrified (the nerves and muscles , for example). Signal transduction mediates how cells respond to such stimuli. Most stimuli impinge from the outside and interact with the cell ...

Skeleton

... are similar to a water-filled balloon. Located internally in cnidarians and annelids , among others, these animals can move by contracting the muscles surrounding the fluid-filled pouch, creating pressure within the pouch that causes movement. Animals such as earthworms use their hydrostatic ...

Synapse

... ones. Synapses are specialized junctions through which cells of the nervous system signal to one another and to non-neuronal cells such as muscles or glands . Synapses form the circuits in which the neurons of the central nervous system interconnect. They are thus crucial to the ...
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