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Multiple in Biological Definition

Twin

... . Due to the limited size of the mother's womb, multiple pregnancy is much less likely to carry to full ... Parasitic twins 3 Human twins 3.1 multiple births 3.2 Predisposing factors 3.3 Twin ... causing hyperovulation (stimulated release of multiple eggs by the mother) has caused what some call an ...

Antibody

... find trimeric and even tetrameric IgA. IgM IgM forms polymers where multiple immunoglobulins are covalently linked together with disulfide bonds, ... Blood isolated from these animals contains polyclonal antibodies -- multiple antibodies that stick to the same antigen. The serum (=blood from which ...

Cancer

... , leukemia , lymphoma , Hodgkin's disease , non-Hodgkin's lymphoma , multiple myeloma , brain tumor , breast cancer , cervical cancer , colorectal ... in female carriers of BRCA1 tumors of various endocrine organs in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN types 1, 2a, 2b) Li-Fraumeni syndrome ...

Computed axial tomography

... generate three dimensional volumetric information, in turn viewable from multiple different perspectives on attached CT workstation monitors. In ... joints, because of the ability to reconstruct the area of interest in multiple planes. See also Cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures ...

Infertility

... . IVF and other fertility treatments have resulted in an increase in multiple births , provoking ethical analysis because of the link between multiple pregnancies, premature birth , and a host of health problems. Religious ...

Microscope

... microscope , as opposed to a standard compound microscope (see below) with multiple lenses, is a microscope that uses only one lens for magnification. Van ... or ocular. Modern microscopes of this kind are usually more complex, with multiple lens components in both objective and eyepiece assemblies. These ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... may increase the chance of malignancy, expecially in children receiving multiple examinations. While CT provides superior spatial resolution (the ... is currently the most sensitive way to evaluate the brain for changes of multiple sclerosis . The typical MRI examination typically consists of 5-20 ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... (PCR) is a molecular biological technique for amplifying (creating multiple copies of) DNA without using a living organism , such as E. coli or ... a gene using a plasmid. (1) Chromosomal DNA of organism A. (2) PCR. (3) multiple copies of a single gene from organism A. (4) Insertion of the gene into a ...

Phage

... in Georgia . The development of bacterial strains that are resistant to multiple drugs has led Western medical researchers to re-evaluate phages as ... display is a test to screen for protein interactions by integrating multiple genes from a gene bank into phages. Model bacteriophages Following ...

Transmembrane protein

... their C-terminal on the cytoplasmic face. Many transmembrane proteins have multiple membrane spanning alpha helix segments which anchors them to the ... proteins: Single-pass Multi-pass transmembrane proteins have multiple topogenic sequences . Examples Some cell adhesion proteins ...

Apoptosis

... abnormal production of TNF plays a fundamental role in several human diseases, especially (but not only) in autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Implication and role of apoptosis in diverse pathologies Apoptosis and the role of interferon in tumor suppression In their ...

Beta sheet

... backbone of one strand establish hydrogen bonds with the C=O groups in the backbone of the adjacent, parallel strand(s). The cumulative effect of multiple such hydrogen bonds arranged in this way contributes to the sheet's stability and structural rigidity and integrity. The α-C atoms of adjacent ...

Biology

... Homeostasis is the property of an open system to regulate its internal environment so as to maintain a stable condition, by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. All living organisms , whether unicellular or multicellular ...

Bioinformatics

... through evolutionary principles. Gene expression analysis The expression of many genes can be determined by measuring mRNA levels with multiple techniques including microarrays , expressed cDNA sequence tag ( EST ) sequencing, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tag sequencing, ...

Biomechanics

... Biomechanics is the analysis of the mechanics of living organisms . The analysis can be carried forth on multiple levels, from the molecular , wherein molecular biomaterials such as collagen and elastin are considered, to the macroscopic level, all the way up ...

BLAST

... sequences (megablast) : When comparing large numbers of input sequences via the command-line BLAST, "megablast" is much faster than running BLAST multiple times. External links NCBI-BLAST Home page NCBI-BLAST Tutorial WU-BLAST (Another implementation of BLAST.) BioASP BLAST ...

Cellulose

... (beta-glucose) are linked together through 1,4 glycosidic bonds . Cellulose is a straight chain (no coiling occurs). In microfibrils , the multiple hydroxide groups hydrogen bond with each other, holding the chains firmly together and contributing to their high tensile strength. This strength ...

Chromosome

... 6 Human chromosome 7 Chromosomal aberrations 8 See also 9 External links Chromosomes in eukaryotes Eukaryotes possess multiple linear chromosomes contained in the cell's nucleus. Each chromosome has one centromere , with one or two arms projecting from the centromere. The ...

Competitive exclusion principle

... within small regions of open sea. A partial solution to the paradox lies in raising the dimensionality of the system. Spatial heterogeneity , multiple resource competition , competition-colonization trade-offs , and lag prevent exclusion (ignoring stochastic extinction over longer time-frames). ...

Bioinformatics

... through evolutionary principles. Gene expression analysis The expression of many genes can be determined by measuring mRNA levels with multiple techniques including microarrays , expressed cDNA sequence tag ( EST ) sequencing, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tag sequencing, ...

Cooperativity

... Cooperativity is a phenomenon in biology displayed by enzymes or receptors that have multiple binding sites . When substrate bonds to the active site of one enzymatic subunit, the rest of the subunits are stimulated and become active. ...

Diabetes mellitus

... and adjustment of diabetic medications. Long-term complications Among the major risks of the disorder are chronic problems affecting multiple organ systems which will eventually arise in patients with poor glycemic control. Many of these arise from damage to the blood vessels. These ...

Ploidy

... due to the accumulation of mutations which increase chromosome missegregation . Polyploidy Polyploidy is the state where all cells have multiple pairs of chromosomes beyond the basic set. Polyploidy is common in plants, and rare in animals. ...

Gel electrophoresis

... bands, one band per component. Incomplete separation of the components can lead to overlapping bands, or to indistinguishable smears representing multiple unresolved components. Bands in different lanes that end up at the same "height" contain molecules that passed through the gel with the same speed, ...

Warm-blooded

... ocean voyages, and shortage of prey when warm blooded creatures would surely die. The disadvantage of being cold blooded is that you need to have multiple chemical pathways available to you, some of them for cooler temperature functioning, others for warm. You may also find yourself moving or thinking ...

Endosymbiotic theory

... more closely related to forms lacking them than to each other. This suggests that if chloroplasts originated as part of the cell, they did so multiple times, in which case their close similarity to each other is difficult to explain. The size of both organelles is comparable to bacteria. These ...

Eye

... of eye Compound eyes are found among the arthropods (insects and kin), and are composed of many simple facets which give a pixelated image (not multiple images as is often believed). Trilobites (now extinct ) had a unique form of eye (usually compound) formed from crystals of calcite , ...

Flagellum

... species of bacteria have different numbers and arrangements of flagella. Monotrichous bacteria have a single flagellum. Lophotrichous bacteria have multiple flagella located at the same spot on the bacteria's surface which act in concert to drive the bacteria in a single direction. Amphitrichous bacteria ...

Gamete

... zygote cell receives one set of chromosomes from each of the two gametes involved in the union. After fusion of the two gamete nuclei , and after multiple cell divisions and cellular differentiation , a zygote develops , first into an embryo , and ultimately into a mature individual capable of ...

Fungus

... fusion to form diploid nuclei is called karyogamy , and may not occur until sporangia are formed. In the Zygomycota , the heterokaryon produces multiple fruiting bodies, in the form of minuscule stalks with sporangia at the end. Most ascomycetes produce fruiting bodies called ascocarps , ...

Gel electrophoresis

... bands, one band per component. Incomplete separation of the components can lead to overlapping bands, or to indistinguishable smears representing multiple unresolved components. Bands in different lanes that end up at the same "height" contain molecules that passed through the gel with the same speed, ...

Genetics

... the gene codes for the protein . Note that the "one gene, one protein" concept is now known to be simplistic. For example, a single gene may produce multiple products, depending on how its transcription is regulated. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 History 1.1 Timeline of ...

Ploidy

... due to the accumulation of mutations which increase chromosome missegregation . Polyploidy Polyploidy is the state where all cells have multiple pairs of chromosomes beyond the basic set. Polyploidy is common in plants, and rare in animals. ...

Hermaphrodite

... self fertilization, but when they find a mate, the pair takes turns between which one acts as the male, and which acts as the female, through multiple matings, usually over several nights. Gonadal dysgenesis , a type of intersexuality formerly known as "True Hermaphroditism", occurs in ...

Homeostasis

... property of an open system , especially living organisms, to regulate its internal environment so as to maintain a stable condition, by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. The term was coined in 1932 by Walter Cannon from two ...

Immune system

... other disorders, particularly autoimmune disorders such as lupus erythematosus , type I diabetes (sometimes called "juvenile onset diabetes"), multiple sclerosis , psoriasis , and rheumatoid arthritis . In these the immune system fails to properly distinguish between self and non-self and attacks a ...

Ion channel

... processes such as the pacemaker activity in the heart, insulin release, and potassium uptake in glial cells. Certain channels respond to multiple influences. For instance, the NMDA receptor is partially activated by interaction with its ligand, glutamate , but is also voltage-sensitive and ...

Joint

... is highly calcified, and anchors the articular cartilage to the bone. In joints where the two surfaces do not fit snugly together, a meniscus or multiple folds of fibro-cartilage within the joint correct the fit, ensuring stability and the optimal distribution of load forces. The synovium is a ...

Lambda phage

... cell and enters its lytic cycle . The reactivated phage takes apart the host's DNA and "reprograms" its "protein factory" to produce new phages in multiple copies. When all resources of the host are depleted from building new phages, the cell is lysed (the cell membrane is broken down), and the new ...

Lyon hypothesis

... The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes , all but one is inactivated during mammalian embryogenesis . X-inactivation leads to clumped chromatin termed Barr bodies , ...
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