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Molecule in Biological Definition

Affinity chromatography

... is usually used to: Purify and concentrate a molecule from a mixture into a buffering solution. Reduce the amount of a molecule in a mixture. Contents ... a cell lysate, growth medium or blood serum. The molecule of interest will have a well known and defined ...

Antigen

... An antigen is any molecule that is recognized by antibodies . Usually, an ... cell to its environment via a histocompatibility molecule . Depending on the antigen presented and the histocompatibility molecule used, several types of immune cells can leap ...

ATPase

... of solute molecules are transported for each ATP molecule that is hydrolyzed; for example, 3 Na + ions ... for adding an inorganic phosphate group to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This enzyme ...

Cellular respiration

... not require oxygen . The process converts one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate , ... into pyruvate are (in brief): A glucose molecule from the hydrolysation of starch or glycogen is phosphorylated using one ATP molecule to give glucose-6-phosphate. The ...

Chromatin

... into chromatin both to constrain the size of the molecule and to allow the cell to control expression of ... during prophase . (Two copies of the DNA molecule are now present) (5) Chromosome during metaphase ... into chromatin both to constrain the size of the molecule and to allow the cell to control expression of ...

Citric acid cycle

... metabolic pathways that are involved in fuel molecule catabolism and ATP production. The citric ... within the cytoplasm in prokaryotes . Fuel molecule catabolism (including glycolysis ) produces ... energy gained from the complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose by glycolysis, the citric acid cycle ...

DNA

... viruses . DNA is sometimes referred to as the molecule of heredity as it is inherited and used to ... structure Although sometimes called "the molecule of heredity", pieces of DNA as people typically ... illustration at the right). Each vine-like molecule is a strand of DNA: a chemically linked chain of ...

Enzyme

... to form a multimeric protein. The final enzyme molecule might also be modified in various ways to make it ... Isomerase : all those enzymes which convert a molecule into one of its isomeric forms Kinases : all ... those enzymes that can eliminate a group from a molecule to form a double bond and vice versa. ...

Gene therapy

... with some enzymes into the cell. This RNA molecule from the retrovirus must produce a DNA copy from its RNA molecule before it can be considered part of the genetic ... The process of producing a DNA copy from an RNA molecule is termed reverse transcription . It is carried ...

Glycolysis

... links Output Glycolysis converts one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate , ... So, for simple fermentations, the metabolism of 1 molecule of glucose has a net yield of 2 molecules of ATP ... molecules (approximately) of ATP for each glucose molecule oxidized. Location In eukaryotes ...

Hydrolysis

... Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water . This is distinct from a hydration ... functional group. The fragment of the parent molecule that was originally a carboxylate gains a ...

Insulin

... 4. Leader and C chain are cut off 5. Insulin molecule remains Structure and production Insulin ... acids. Insulin is produced as a prohormone molecule – proinsulin – that is later ... respiratory cycle where the high-energy ATP molecule is produced by oxidation Dependent on blood ...

Citric acid cycle

... metabolic pathways that are involved in fuel molecule catabolism and ATP production. The citric ... within the cytoplasm in prokaryotes . Fuel molecule catabolism (including glycolysis ) produces ... energy gained from the complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose by glycolysis, the citric acid cycle ...

Light-dependent reaction

... (hydrogen nucleus). The water or some other donor molecule is split in the process; it is the light reaction ... when a photon of sunlight strikes a chlorophyll molecule contained within a photosystem (cluster of ... is made up for by taking electrons from a molecule of water, splitting it into O 2 and H + . The ...

Macromolecule

... A macromolecule is a molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of ... molecular mass. [1] A macromolecule is a molecule composed of a very large number of atoms . But ... term macromolecule is reserved for an individual molecule and the term polymer is used as to denote a ...

Olfaction

... , each receptor detects a feature of the odor molecule . Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key ... only vibration theory can explain why a molecule containing hydrogen atoms (such as decaborane ... silkworm moth, for example, can smell a single molecule of bombykol. Insects primarily use their ...

Oxidative phosphorylation

... + + P i ↔ ATP 4- + H 2 O Each NADH molecule contributes enough proton motive force to generate 3 ATP. Each FADH 2 molecule is worth 2 ATP. All together, the 10 NADH and 2 ... ATP values are maximums, in reality each NADH molecule contributes between 2 and 3 ATP, while each FADH ...

Peptide bond

... two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H 2 O). This is a dehydration ... bond is called a peptide bond, and the resulting molecule is called an amide . Polypeptides and ...

Peptide

... character, because the participating carbon molecule is doubly bonded to an oxygen molecule and the nitrogen has a lone pair of electrons ... distinction such that a peptide is an amino acid molecule without structure; on gaining defined structure ...

Photon

... this mode. Molecular absorption A typical molecule , M , has many different energy levels . When a molecule absorbs a photon, its energy is increased by an amount equal to the energy of the photon. The molecule then enters an excited state , . ...

Light-dependent reaction

... (hydrogen nucleus). The water or some other donor molecule is split in the process; it is the light reaction ... when a photon of sunlight strikes a chlorophyll molecule contained within a photosystem (cluster of ... is made up for by taking electrons from a molecule of water, splitting it into O 2 and H + . The ...

Peptide

... character, because the participating carbon molecule is doubly bonded to an oxygen molecule and the nitrogen has a lone pair of electrons ... distinction such that a peptide is an amino acid molecule without structure; on gaining defined structure ...

Primary structure

... of an unbranched biopolymer , such as a molecule of DNA , RNA or protein , is to name the ... ) in order from the beginning to the end of the molecule to obtain either nucleotide or peptide ... determines the three-dimensional shape that the molecule assumes in vivo, knowing it often doesn't help a ...

RNA

... than a hydroxyl group). This hydroxyl gives the molecule far greater catalytic versatility and allows it ... sequences; that is, one part of a single RNA molecule is the nucleic acid complement of another part of the same molecule (for example, 5' -ACUCGA- 3' and 5'-UCGAGU-3'), ...

Signal transduction

... of the receptor which occurs when the signal molecule "docks" or binds. Receptors typically respond only to the specific molecule or " ligand " for which they have affinity, and ... complex that finally sends a signal via a soluble molecule into the cell. Signal transduction of ...

X-ray crystallography

... to better influence their protein targets. The molecule must be crystallized because one photon ... a structure, one must first grow crystals of the molecule of interest using some method of crystallization ... to construct a map of the electron density of the molecule that was crystallized, atoms are then fit to the ...

Coenzyme A

... function is to carry acyl groups such as acetyl as thioesters . A molecule of coenzyme A carrying an acetyl group is also referred to as acetyl-CoA . Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule itself. It is the precursor to HMG CoA, which is a vital component in ...

Active transport

... flow of one solute species from high to low concentration to move another molecule against its preferred direction of flow; but here, both solutes move in ... example is the glucose symporter, which cotransports two sodiums for every molecule of glucose it imports into the cell. See also Ion channel ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... pyruvate in the cytosol . Two molecules of ATP are generated for each molecule of glucose. The terminal stages of ATP synthesis are carried out in the ... hydrolysis of 200 to 300 moles of ATP daily. This means that each ATP molecule is recycled 2000 to 3000 times during a single day. ATP cannot be stored, ...

Allostery

... or efficiency changes in response to the binding of an effector molecule at a so-called allosteric site . Changes that enhance activity are ... an induced fit protocol. Namely, when a subunit randomly collides with a molecule of substrate, the active site essentially forms a glove around its ...

Allostery

... or efficiency changes in response to the binding of an effector molecule at a so-called allosteric site . Changes that enhance activity are ... an induced fit protocol. Namely, when a subunit randomly collides with a molecule of substrate, the active site essentially forms a glove around its ...

Amino acid

... In chemistry , an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups . In ... . Amino acid residue is what is left of an amino acid once a water molecule has been lost (an H+ from the nitrogenous side and an OH- from the ...

Antibody

... dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric, pentameric etc. The monomer is a "Y"-shaped molecule that consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains ... built of two heavy chains γ and two light chains. Each molecule has two antigen binding sites. This is the most abundant immunoglobulin ...

Apoptosis

... the notochord and the floor plate secrete a gradient of the signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh), and it is this gradient that directs cells to form ... Tumor necrosis factor ( TNF ), a 157 amino acid inter-cellular signaling molecule ( cytokine ) produced mainly by activated macrophages, and is the major ...

Competitive inhibitor

... In biochemistry one distinguishes two ways in which a molecule may block the action of an enzymes : competitive and noncompetitive inhibition. In competitive inhibition , the molecule acts on the same active site as the normal enzyme substrate . The ...

Genetic code

... - is inscribed in a DNA molecule. Each functional portion of this molecule is referred to as a gene . Each gene is transcribed into a short template molecule of the related polymer RNA , which is better suited for protein ....

Dimer

... table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. A dimer is a molecule composed of two subunits linked together. It is a special case of a ... types of sugar ; sucrose , for example, is a dimer of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule. In biology , a dimer is a protein complex ...

Facilitated diffusion

... completely spans the membrane. It also has a binding site for the specific molecule (e.g., glucose ) or ion to be transported. After binding the molecule, the protein changes shape and carries the molecule across the membrane, where it is released. The protein then returns to its ...

Genetic code

... - is inscribed in a DNA molecule. Each functional portion of this molecule is referred to as a gene . Each gene is transcribed into a short template molecule of the related polymer RNA , which is better suited for protein ....

Mitochondrion

... Pyruvate: the Krebs cycle Main article: Krebs cycle Each pyruvate molecule produced by glycolysis is actively transported across the inner ... or citric acid cycle . This process creates 3 molecules of NADH and 1 molecule of FADH 2 , which go on to participate in the electron transport chain ...
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