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Molecular in Biological Definition

Antibiotic

... . Antibiotics are small molecules with a molecular weight less than 2000 and they are not enzymes ... significant differences between the cellular and molecular physiology of the bacterial cell and that of the ... few genes worth of DNA or RNA and the minimal molecular equipment needed to enter a cell and actually ...

Antibody

... chain (from j oin), which is a polypeptide of molecular mass 1,5 kD, rich with cysteine and ... secretions has also a polypeptide of the same molecular mass (1,5 kD) that is called the secretory chain ... as a pentamer or a hexamer. It has a large molecular mass of approximately 900 kD. The J chain is ...

Antigen

... response depends on its foreignness to the host, molecular size, chemical composition and heterogeneity ... a specific immune unresponsiveness due to its molecular form . A tolerogen can become an immunogen if its molecular form is changed. Allergen - An allergen is ...

Apoptosis

... a good fit with an astounding number of precise molecular shapes. This means that most of these immature ... because their receptors could make a good molecular fit with healthy self antigen. If they would be ... & Science Prize for Young Scientists in molecular Biology, and published in Science Online in ...

Biology

... scales . Life is studied at the atomic and molecular scale in molecular biology , biochemistry , and molecular genetics . At the level of the cell , it is ...

Bacterium

... from assemblies of bacteria. The advent of molecular systematics challenged this view. In 1977, ... This redefinition has generally been accepted by molecular biologists but criticized by some others, who ... gentle shaking). Some bacteria are able to use molecular nitrogen as their source of nitrogen, converting ...

Biochemistry

... in all living organisms . See the article on molecular biology for a diagram and description of the interrelationship between biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics . Biochemistry is the ... labelling , electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. These techniques allowed ...

Biomechanics

... be carried forth on multiple levels, from the molecular , wherein molecular biomaterials such as collagen and elastin are ... modulus , would be different. Chemistry , molecular biology , and cell biology have much to offer in ...

Biophysics

... in biology, but the questions are asked at a molecular (i.e. low Reynolds number ) level. By drawing ... mixing between departments. Biology and molecular biology - Almost all biophysics efforts are ... relationships. Computer science - molecular simulations, sequence alignment, neural networks, ...

Cancer

... 5 Causes and pathophysiology 5.1 molecular biology 5.2 Morphology 5.3 Heredity 5.4 ... tumors. Causes and pathophysiology molecular biology Carcinogenesis (meaning literally, ... cause for any specific cancer. However, with molecular biology , it is now possible to characterize the ...

Cell biology

... ; this is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. Cell biology researches both ... particularly important to the fields of cell and molecular biology . These fundamental similarities and ... closely related to genetics , biochemistry , molecular biology and developmental biology . ...

Classical genetics

... of genetics that predate the advent of molecular biology . A key discovery of classical genetics ... with the mechanistic understanding brought by molecular discoveries, but many remain intact and in use. ... with reverse genetics , and aspects of molecular biology are sometimes referred to as ...

Cladistics

... term for extremely fine structure, microscopic or molecular composition of cellular structure) may be used to ... ). Another approach, particularly useful in molecular evolution, is maximum likelihood , which selects ... increasingly often constructed with the aid of molecular data. Computational systematics allows the use ...

Genetic code

... Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter. (2002). molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.) . New York: ... Baltimore, David; Darnell, James E. (1999). molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.) . New York: W. H. ... of Amino Acids into the Genetic Code . molecular Biology and Evolution 19 , 1645-1655. ...

Developmental biology

... the 1990s and is a synthesis of findings from molecular developmental biology and evolutionary biology ... are used to delucidate the physiology and molecular basis of this cellular process. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 molecular mechanisms of development 2 Developmental ...

DNA

... in brief 2 DNA in crime 3 Overview of molecular structure 4 The role of the sequence 5 ... of several possible suspects. Overview of molecular structure Although sometimes called "the ... per 10.6 bp in the absence of strain. But many molecular biological processes can induce strain. A DNA ...

Ecological genetics

... of genetics on an ecological scale. While molecular genetics studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level, ecological genetics (and the related field ... As a result, funding was diverted towards molecular genetics . Improved understanding ...

Bacterium

... from assemblies of bacteria. The advent of molecular systematics challenged this view. In 1977, ... This redefinition has generally been accepted by molecular biologists but criticized by some others, who ... gentle shaking). Some bacteria are able to use molecular nitrogen as their source of nitrogen, converting ...

Evolution

... Wilkins . These developments ignited the era of molecular biology and transformed the understanding of evolution into a molecular process: the mutation of segments of DNA (see molecular evolution ). In the mid- 1970s , Motoo Kimura ...

Francis Crick

... the foundations of the now mature field of molecular biology . This includes work on the nature of the ... mechanisms of protein synthesis . He later left molecular biology for his other interest, consciousness . ... Pursuit includes a description of why he left molecular biology and switched to neuroscience. Crick's ...

Gene

... disciplines, including classical genetics , molecular genetics , evolutionary biology and population ... "gene" has increasingly reflected its meaning in molecular biology . In the molecular-biological sense, ... Chemical structure of a gene 2.2 Expression of molecular genes 2.3 Mutations and evolution 3 ...

Genetic code

... Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter. (2002). molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.) . New York: ... Baltimore, David; Darnell, James E. (1999). molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.) . New York: W. H. ... of Amino Acids into the Genetic Code . molecular Biology and Evolution 19 , 1645-1655. ...

Genetic recombination

... , and population genetics . However, in molecular biology , recombination generally refers to the molecular process by which alleles at two genes in a ... References Alberts, B. et al., molecular Biology of the Cell , 3rd Edition. Garland ...

Genetics

... of genetics 2.1 Classical genetics 2.2 molecular genetics 2.3 Population, quantitative and ... of genetics that predate the advent of molecular biology . After the discovery of the genetic ... with the mechanistic understanding brought by molecular discoveries, but many remain intact and in use, ...

Insulin

... primary structure , was determined by British molecular biologist Frederick Sanger . It was the first ... to be effective. In humans, insulin has a molecular weight of 5734. Insulin is structured as 2 ... now be manufactured, using genetic engineering molecular biology techniques, in sufficient quantity for ...

Isozyme

... isozymes 4 Isozymes and allozymes as molecular markers 5 References 6 External links ... this forms the basis for the use of isozymes as molecular markers . To identify isozymes, a crude protein ... technique. Isozymes and allozymes as molecular markers Population genetics is essentially a ...

James D. Watson

... In the same way, Watson's first textbook, The molecular Biology of the Gene set a new standard for ... succeeding texbooks. His next great success was molecular Biology of the Cell although here his role was ... and Francis H. Crick. "Letters to Nature : molecular structure of Nucleic Acid." Nature 171 , ...

Molecular biology

... molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. The field overlaps with other areas of ... , particularly genetics and biochemistry . molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with ...

Molecular evolution

... molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material ... traits are a result of changes in the DNA, molecular evolution must be seen as part of general evolution . The boundary between molecular and other aspects of evolution is not clearly ...

Molecular genetics

... molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. molecular genetics employs the methods of genetics and ...

Molecular phylogeny

... molecular phylogeny is the use of a gene's molecular characteristics to classify an organism and to ... generally have a high degree of agreement in the molecular structure of these substances, while the ...

Neuroscience

... which involves many levels of study, from the molecular level through the cellular level (individual ... four main areas of study within neuroscience molecular neuroscience - In principle, there is no distinction between cellular and molecular biology of the brain and of any other organ. ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... The neutral theory of molecular evolution (also, simply the neutral theory of ... the neutral theory is the foundation of the molecular clock technique, which evolutionary molecular biologists use to measure how much time has ...

Oswald Avery

... a physician , medical researcher and early molecular biologist . He was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia ... , New York City . Avery was one of the first molecular biologists and was a pioneer in immunochemistry ... DNA, and thus the birth of modern genetics and molecular biology. The experiment was a simple one in ...

Prion

... 2 Useful Prions 3 Yeast Prions 4 molecular Properties of Prions 5 Classification 6 ... New1p , forming the [NU+] element. molecular Properties of Prions A great deal of our knowledge of how prions work at a molecular level comes from detailed biochemical analysis of ...

Protein

... = first element ) is a complex, high molecular weight organic compound that consists of amino ... Proteins are generally large molecules, having molecular masses of up to 3,000,000 (the muscle protein ... represents one of the chief tools of cell and molecular biologists to change and to probe the workings of ...

Restriction enzyme

... (more below). Many of the procedures of molecular biology and genetic engineering rely on ... with identical sequences. These rules enable molecular biologists to anticipate which fragments will ... into a plasmid (i.e. which will enable what molecular biologists call " cloning " of the gene). ...

Trait

... A visible trait is the final product of many molecular and biochemical processes. In most cases, ... and function). This is the Central Dogma of molecular biology as stated by Francis Crick . This ... . His tool was statistics : long before the molecular theory of DNA . Biochemistry of dominance ...

Virus

... to complex molecules. Like DNA, viruses undergo molecular replication and they can often be crystallized ... Viruses are important to the study of molecular and cellular biology because they provide ... our understanding of the basic mechanisms of molecular genetics . Because of the complexity of an ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... triphosphate ( ATP ) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the " molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to ... and the chemical formula C 10 H 8 N 4 O 2 NH 2 (OH) 2 (PO 3 H) 3 H, with a molecular mass of 507.184 u . The phosphoryl groups starting with that on AMP ...
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