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Modern in Biological Definition

Abiogenesis

... 1 History of abiogenesis hypotheses 2 modern concepts of abiogenesis 2.1 Scientific ... only from pre-existing living organisms. modern concepts of abiogenesis Main article: ... different conditions of the early Earth. The modern definition of abiogenesis is concerned with the ...

Biology

... as an additional mechanism in the so-called modern synthesis . The evolutionary history of a ... is now considered by many to be outdated. More modern alternatives generally begin with the ... Omne vivum ex ovo ") is a foundational concept of modern biology, it means that there has been an unbroken ...

Charles Darwin

... theory laid the foundation for both the modern theory of evolution and the principle of ... the early 20th century and the creation of the modern synthesis ). His work was extremely ... these elements of his thought are often hard for modern readers to reconcile with his overall scientific ...

Culture

... , norms , and artifacts . [ Dictionary of modern Sociology , 1969, 93, cited at [1] ] Values are ... Hoult, Thomas Ford, ed. (1969). Dictionary of modern Sociology . Totowa, New Jersey, United States: ... of Ideas : "Culture" and "Civilization" in modern Times Classificatory system for cultures and ...

Epigenetics

... showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 The modern view 2 Historical notes 3 See also 4 References The modern view In biology today, epigenetics has two ... 1896 (see References). Various aspects of the modern understanding of epigenetic inheritance are ...

Eugenics

... philosophy to become almost universally reviled. modern inquiries into the potential use of genetic ... and the state, 1890s-1945 One of the earliest modern advocates of eugenic ideas (before they were ... , have openly called for eugenic policies using modern technology, but represent a minority opinion in ...

Evolution

... of new species . Since the development of modern genetics in the 1940s , evolution has been ... is often used as a shorthand for both the modern theory that all extant species share a common ... and Mendel's theory of genetics is called the modern synthesis . In ...

Genetics

... and breeding of plants and animals. In modern research, genetics provides important tools in ... the supposition of Mendelian inheritance - the modern synthesis starts. 1913 Gene maps show ... build upon classical genetics (supplemented with modern molecular genetics). They are chiefly ...

Human

... six to seven hours. It is common, however, in modern societies for people to get less sleep than they ... predating phylogenetic separation of the modern population. (See Proto-World language , Origins ... migrations. As a result, the ancestors of all modern humans are thought to have evolved in Africa over ...

Microscope

... single glass lens for the eyepiece or ocular. modern microscopes of this kind are usually more ... aberration and spherical aberration . In modern microscopes the mirror is replaced by a lamp unit ... the eye relief is uncomfortably close compared to modern widefield oculars. Anton van Leeuwenhoek ...

Modern evolutionary synthesis

... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis ), neo-Darwinian synthesis or ... Major figures in the development of the modern synthesis include Ronald Fisher , Theodosius ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... the complex library of pulse sequences that the modern medical MRI scanner includes, each of which is ... and fluid-containing tissues are bright (most modern T2 sequences are actually fast T2 sequences, in ... cancer is working, and it is not used in modern MRI imaging and diagnostics. His description of a ...

Origin of life

... This article focuses on modern scientific research on the origin of life. For ... Research into the origin of life is the modern incarnation of the ancient concept of ... from other life") became firmly established in modern biology. The ...

Paleontology

... also 5 External links Overview modern paleontology sets ancient life in its contexts, ... Palynology is the study of pollen, whether modern or geological. The major subdivisions of ... paleontologists include Yves Coppens . More modern figures in paleontology include John Ostrom , ...

Population genetics

... genetics was a vital ingredient in the modern evolutionary synthesis , its primary founders ... the most significant "formal" achievement of the modern evolutionary synthesis has been the framework of ... 1986) would argue that it defines core of the modern synthesis. Lewontin (1974) outlined the ...

Artificial life

... disrepair. [1] 1950s-1970s One of the earliest thinkers of the modern age to postulate the potentials of artificial life, separate from ... views of 19th century American thinker Charles S. Peirce into the modern age. Peirce was a strong believer that all of nature's workings were ...

Biotechnology

... used in genetics and radioactive tracers used in medicine. modern biotechnology is often associated with the use of genetically altered ... producing monoclonal antibody developed by Kohler and Milstein 1980 modern biotech is characterized by recombinant DNA technology . The prokaryote ...

Botany

... 1.4 Understand environmental changes 2 History 2.1 modern botany (since 1945) 2.2 Early botany (before 1945) 3 See also ... and rewarding topic of study in its own right. History modern botany (since 1945) A considerable amount of new knowledge today is ...

Carolus Linnaeus

... 10 , 1778 ), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy . He is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology (see History of ecology ). Contents ...

Cloning

... a new organism with the same genetic information as an existing one. In a modern context, this can involve somatic cell nuclear transfer in which the ... Cloning in Fiction 7 External links Species cloned The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfers have been successfully ...

Drosophila

... and " Drosophila " are often used synonymously with D. melanogaster in modern biological literature. This article however deals with the whole genus. ... links 5 References Name The term "Drosophila" is a modern scientific Latin adaptation from Greek ...

Evolutionary biology

... a re-entry into evolutionary biology from its initial exclusion from the modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental biology . ... as an academic discipline in its own right emerged as a result of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s . It was not until the ...

Extinction

... extinctions), with many more likely to have gone unnoticed. Most of these modern extinctions can be attributed directly or indirectly to human effects. ... Some of these species are functionally extinct. When possible, modern zoological institutions attempt to maintain a viable population for ...

Gregor Mendel

... Fisher in 1918 used Mendelian genetics as the basis of the start of the modern synthesis in evolutionary biology. His experimental results have later ... evidenced by the pages of the paper remaining uncut). In the event, the modern evolutionary synthesis did not start until the 1920s , by which time ...

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

... naturalist, who was one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense.¹ Lamarck is remembered today mainly in connection with a ... view was, until very recently, thought to be completely inconsistent with modern genetics, but recent discoveries, as discussed in the article on ...

Louis Pasteur

... and other drinks as sources of disease. In fact, Pasteur inaugurated the modern age of medicine , leading to an increase in the human life span in much ... biography in English. Tiner, John Hudson: "Louis Pasteur: Founder of modern Medicine". Mott Media, 1990; ISBN 0-88062-159-1 (paperback). A biography ...

Oswald Avery

... and Crick 's discovery of the structure of DNA, and thus the birth of modern genetics and molecular biology. The experiment was a simple one in ... stated that Avery and his laboratory provided "the historical platform of modern DNA research" and "betokened the molecular revolution in genetics and ...

Plant

... defined concept unrelated to the presumed phylogenic concepts on which modern taxonomy is based. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 ... period also saw the evolution of what many believe to be the first modern tree, Archaeopteris . This fern-like tree combined a woody trunk with ...

Plant

... defined concept unrelated to the presumed phylogenic concepts on which modern taxonomy is based. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 ... period also saw the evolution of what many believe to be the first modern tree, Archaeopteris . This fern-like tree combined a woody trunk with ...

Species

... they began to place formerly isolated species into a context. To the modern mind, many of the schemes delineated are whimsical at best, such as those ... be reexamined, and took its place as a fundamental stepping stone to the modern theory of adaptive mutation . Lamarck's long-discarded ideas of the ...

Zoology

... in space and time. (1) The museum -makers of old days and their modern representatives the curators and describers of zoological collections, (2) early explorers and modern naturalist travellers and writers on zoo-geography, and (3) collectors ...

Alexander Fleming

... attack . He was buried as a national hero in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. His discovery of penicillin had changed the world of modern medicines by introducing the age of useful antibiotics . External link Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century profile on ...

Anatomy

... intelligible; and, secondly, to give the non-expert inquirer, or the worker in some other branch of science, the chief theories on which the modern scientific groundwork of anatomy is built. Major body systems: Integumentary system Muscular system Nervous system Reproductive ...

Antibiotic

... washing hands and using sterilized instruments) revolutionized medicine . It has been said that this is the greatest advance in health since modern sanitation . People in developed countries now find it hard to imagine that a simple scratch once always carried the risk of infection and death. ...

Biophysics

... of bioelectricity Hermann von Helmholtz , first to measure the velocity of nerve impulses Alan Hodgkin & Andrew Huxley , created modern understanding of nerve impulses Georg von Bksy , research on the human ear Bernard Katz , discovered how synapses work Maurice Wilkins ...

Brain

... gives this tissue its white color. White matter is found in bundles of fibers known as tracts which connect the different parts of the brain. In modern species most closely related to the first vertebrates, brains are covered with three layers of gray matter, along with gray deep brain nucleus, ...

Chromatography

... nickel, zinc, or iron. Salt concentration is increased to produce later fractions. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) modern HPLC systems are highly automated High performance liquid chromatography , frequently referred to simply as HPLC , is a form of column ...

Cladistics

... a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. It forms the basis for most modern systems of classification, which seek to group organisms by evolutionary relationships. In contrast, phenetics groups organisms based on their ...

Computed axial tomography

... 1979 ( See also history of brain imaging ). The first scanner took several hours to acquire the raw data and several days to produce the images. modern multi-detector CT systems can complete a scan of the chest in less time than it takes for a single breath (useful if the patient cannot hold his/her ...

Developmental biology

... Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. modern developmental biology studies the genetic control of cell growth , differentiation and " morphogenesis ," which is the process that gives rise to ...
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