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Mitochondria in Biological Definition

ATP synthase

... is the common "energy currency" of cells. In mitochondria , the F O F 1 ATP synthase has a long history of ... is correlated with ATPase activity in uncoupled mitochondria and with the ATPase activity in submitochondrial particles created by exposing mitochondria to ultrasound. This ATPase activity was further ...

Endosymbiotic theory

... endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts , which are organelles of ... eukaryotic cells. The theory postulates that the mitochondria evolved from aerobic bacteria (probably ... Mereschkowsky in 1905, and the same idea form mitochondria was suggested by Ivan Wallin in the 1920s. ...

Eukaryote

... 1 Structure 2 Internal membranes 3 mitochondria and plastids 4 Cytoskeletal structures ... which maintains its osmotic pressure. mitochondria and plastids mitochondria are organelles found in nearly all eukaryotes. ...

Mitochondrion

... or thousands of mitochondria. The exact number of mitochondria depends on the cell's level of metabolic activity: more activity means more mitochondria. mitochondria can occupy up to 25% of the cell's cytosol . mitochondria are sometimes described as " cellular power ...

Mitochondrion

... or thousands of mitochondria. The exact number of mitochondria depends on the cell's level of metabolic activity: more activity means more mitochondria. mitochondria can occupy up to 25% of the cell's cytosol . mitochondria are sometimes described as " cellular power ...

Bacterium

... structure lacking a cell nucleus , cytoskeleton, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts . Their cell structure is further described in the ... old organisms, appearing about 3.7 billion years ago. Two organelles , mitochondria and chloroplasts , are generally believed to have been derived from ...

Cellular respiration

... a hydrogen carrier, to give NADH+H + . NADH+H + later proceeds to the mitochondria for use in the electron transport chain. The two molecules of 1,3 ... as the cost of moving pyruvate into mitochondria. This takes place in the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells , and at the cell membrane in prokaryotic cells . ...

Citric acid cycle

... and inputs and outputs The citric acid cycle takes place within the mitochondria in eukaryotes , and within the cytoplasm in prokaryotes . Fuel ... (a three-carbon molecule). In eukaryotes , pyruvate moves into the mitochondria . It is converted into acetyl-CoA and enters the citric acid cycle. In ...

Bacterium

... structure lacking a cell nucleus , cytoskeleton, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts . Their cell structure is further described in the ... old organisms, appearing about 3.7 billion years ago. Two organelles , mitochondria and chloroplasts , are generally believed to have been derived from ...

Citric acid cycle

... and inputs and outputs The citric acid cycle takes place within the mitochondria in eukaryotes , and within the cytoplasm in prokaryotes . Fuel ... (a three-carbon molecule). In eukaryotes , pyruvate moves into the mitochondria . It is converted into acetyl-CoA and enters the citric acid cycle. In ...

Muller's ratchet

... is only transmitted to offspring from the mother. Another example is mitochondria and chloroplasts , which are also transmitted only vertically (although, ... allows a similar situation. Generally, only obligate endosymbionts, mitochondria and chloroplasts are exposed to Muller's ratchet. But even sexually ...

Proton pump

... and tending to establish an electrochemical potential . In bacteria , mitochondria and other ATP-producing organelles, reducing equivalents provided by ... ATP itself powers this transport. The F 0 F 1 ATP synthase of mitochondria and the CF 1 ATP synthetase of chloroplasts, in contrast, usually conduct ...

Sperm

... cell, showing the (1) acrosome , (2) cell membrane , (3) nucleus , (4) mitochondria , and (5) flagellum (tail) A sperm cell , or spermatozoon ( pl. ... for fertilization . The basal body contains a large concentration of mitochondria that provide the energy for sperm motility through the production of ATP ...

Symbiogenesis

... cyanobacteria captured by a protozoan . Today both chloroplasts and mitochondria are believed to have such an origin; see endosymbiotic hypothesis . In ... its diversification can be attributed to it. For instance, the origin of mitochondria made the development of animals possible, but there is no indication of ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... name for ATP is 9--D-ribofuranosyladenine-5'-triphosphate. Synthesis ATP can be produced by various cellular processes, most typically in mitochondria by oxidative phosphorylation under the catalytic influence of ATP synthase or in the case of plants in chloroplasts by photosynthesis . The ...

Apoptosis

... while in other types of cells (type II), the Fas DISC starts a feed-back loop that spirals into increasing release of pro-apoptotic factors from mitochondria (see below), and the amplified activation of caspase-8. Downstream from TNF-R1 and Fas activation - at least in mammalian cells - a balance between ...

ATPase

... they are in high concentration. This process is considered active transport . ATP synthetase The ATP synthetase (or ATP synthase ) of mitochondria and chloroplasts is an anabolic enzyme that harnesses the energy of a transmembrane proton gradient as an energy source for adding an ...

Cell metabolism

... counterparts, is C X (H 2Y O Y ). Carbohydrates literally undergo combustion to retrieve the large amounts of energy in their bonds. Read more about mitochondria to find out more about the reaction and how its energy is secured in ATP . Fat catabolism Main article: Fat catabolism Fat catabolism, ...

Chloroplast

... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis . Chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria but are found only in plants. Both organelles are surrounded by a double membrane with an intermembrane space; both have their own DNA and are ...

Chloroplast membrane

... Chloroplasts contain several important membranes , vital for their function. Like mitochondria , chlorplasts have a double-membrane envelope, called the chloroplast envelope . Each membrane is a phospholipid bilayer , between 6 and 8 nm ...

Genetic code

... they do not often survive purifying selection . Origin of the genetic code Numerous variations of the standard genetic code are found in mitochondria , which are energy-producing organelles . Ciliate protozoa also have some variation in the genetic code: UAG and often UAA code for Glutamine ...

Ion gradient

... as a source of energy. The overall process of creating energy in this fashion is termed oxidative phosphorylation . Same process takes place in mitochondria , were ATP synthase is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane (so that F 1 -part sticks into mitochondrial matrix, were ATP synthesis takes ...

Cytoplasm

... regions of the cell are gel-like and the cell's interior is liquid. The insoluble constituents of the cytoplasm are organelles (such as the mitochondria , the chloroplast , lysosomes , peroxysomes , ribosomes ), several vacuoles , cytoskeletons as well as complex membrane structures (e.g. ...

Cytoskeleton

... by the centrosome . They play key roles in: Intracellular transport (asociated with dyneins and kinesins they transport organelles like mitochondria or vesicles .) the axoneme of cilia and flagella the mitotic spindle synthesis of the cell wall in plants. The prokaryotic ...

DNA

... organisms , by contrast, most of the DNA is located in the cell nucleus . The energy -generating organelles known as chloroplasts and mitochondria also carry DNA, as do many viruses . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 DNA in brief 2 DNA in crime 3 Overview of ...

Endosymbiont

... See symbiosis for further discussion of this issue. It is generally agreed that certain organelles of the eukaryotic cell, especially mitochondria and chloroplasts , originated as bacterial endosymbionts. This theory is known as the endosymbiotic theory , confirmed and popularized by Lynn ...

Endosymbiont

... See symbiosis for further discussion of this issue. It is generally agreed that certain organelles of the eukaryotic cell, especially mitochondria and chloroplasts , originated as bacterial endosymbionts. This theory is known as the endosymbiotic theory , confirmed and popularized by Lynn ...

Epigenetics

... methylation , as well as difference in chromatin structure. Another possibility involves the genomes of cytoplasmic elements ( chloroplasts and mitochondria ). Other mechanisms have also been proposed. See epigenetic inheritance for a more detailed discussion. The epigenome is the overall epigenetic ...

Genetic code

... they do not often survive purifying selection . Origin of the genetic code Numerous variations of the standard genetic code are found in mitochondria , which are energy-producing organelles . Ciliate protozoa also have some variation in the genetic code: UAG and often UAA code for Glutamine ...

Glycolysis

... ATP for each glucose molecule oxidized. Location In eukaryotes glycolysis takes place within the cytosol of the cell (as opposed to the mitochondria , where reactions more closely connected to aerobic metabolism occur). Glucose gets into the cell through facilitated diffusion . In some tissues, ...

Intermembrane space

... mitochondrial matrix or the stroma can bypass the intermembrane space via transport through translocases . These are known as TOM and TIM in mitochondria and TOC and TIC in chloroplasts . It tends to have a low pH because of the proton gradient which results when protons are pumped from the ...

Kidney

... an osmotic gradient set up as a countercurrent exchange to filter and concentrate glomerular filtrate. Cells lining the tubule have numerous mitochondria , enabling active transport to take place by the energy supplied by ATP . Glucose, amino acids, variable ammounts of mineral ions are thus ...

Light-dependent reaction

... complex called photosystem I, passes from the primary acceptor to ferredoxin , then to a complex of two cytochromes (similar to those found in mitochondria ), and then to plastocyanin before returning to chlorophyll. This transport chain produces a proton-motive force, pumping H + ions across the ...

Lynn Margulis

... she proposed a contentious new hypothesis which became her most important scientific contribution as the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of mitochondria as separate organisms that long ago entered a symbiotic relationship with eukaryotic cells through endosymbiosis . "She is best known for ...

Muscle

... into two subtypes: Slow twitch (type I or "red") - rich in myoglobin (which is red and carries oxygen ), higher aerobic metabolism and mitochondria and hence more capable of endurance activities (activities that don't require maximum strength). Fast twitch (type II) - more anaerobic ...

Redox

... a proton gradient , which drives the synthesis of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is maintained by the reduction of oxygen. In animal cells, mitochondria perform similar functions. The term redox state is often used to describe the balance of NAD + /NADH and NADP + /NADPH in a biological system ...

Paternity testing

... of the other (i.e.: one is the parent of the other). This way, paternity can be proved or disproved. Besides the nuclear DNA in the nucleus, the mitochondria in the cells also have their own genetic material termed the mitochondrial genome . Mitochondrial DNA comes only from the mother, without any ...

Light-dependent reaction

... complex called photosystem I, passes from the primary acceptor to ferredoxin , then to a complex of two cytochromes (similar to those found in mitochondria ), and then to plastocyanin before returning to chlorophyll. This transport chain produces a proton-motive force, pumping H + ions across the ...

Plant

... chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch . They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles , and typically have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic ...

Plant

... chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch . They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles , and typically have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic ...
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