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Method in Biological Definition

Affinity chromatography

... chromatography is a biochemical separation method that combines size fractionation capability of ... binds to a known subset of molecules. This method is usually used to: Purify and concentrate a ... and removing the eluate. Sometimes a hybrid method is employed, the binding is done by the batch ...

Chromatography

... columns to separate plant pigments . The method was described on December 30, 1901 at the XI ... contribution was turning the phenomenon into the method of scientific analysis. The Greek word chroma ... theory Chromatography is a separation method that exploits the differences in partitioning ...

Chromosome walking

... Chromosome walking is a method in genetics for identifying and sequencing ... . As the traditional chain termination method does not allow long DNA strands to be sequenced, this method works by dividing the long sequence into several ...

Insulin

... to keep a pancretized dog alive all summer. Their method worked by tying a ligature (string) around the ... from Europe, but demanded a re-run to prove the method actually worked. Several weeks later it was clear ... digestive glands, and was relieved to find this method worked well. With the supply problem solved, the ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... 5 External links History The basic method for performing PCR was invented by Kary Mullis , ... developments in PCR techniques A more recent method which excludes a temperature cycle, but uses ... more of the gene of interest. A quantative RT-PCR method has been developed, it is called Real-Time PCR ...

Primer

... the nucleotides in a DNA strand. A sequencing method called dideoxy sequencing (also known as chain termination method or Sanger method ) uses a primer as a start marker for the chain ...

Alternative splicing

... splicing: Alternative selection of promoters : this is the only method of splicing which can produce an alternative N-terminus domain in ... Alternative selection of cleavage/polyadenylation sites : this is the only method of splicing which can produce an alternative C-terminus domain in ....

Computed axial tomography

... CT angiography of the chest (CTPA) is also becoming the primary method for detecting pulmonary embolism (PE) and aortic dissection , and ... injections of contrast and high-speed helical scanners. CT is the standard method of evaluating abnormalities seen on chest X-ray and of following ...

Dialysis

... see Dialysis (biochemistry) In medicine , dialysis is a method for removing waste such as urea from the blood when the kidneys are ... a clean area to work, a way to elevate the bag of dialysis fluid and a method of warming the fluid are all that is needed. The main consideration is the ...

Genetic fingerprinting

... of blood, saliva, semen, or other appropriate fluid or tissue. A common method is a buccal swab . Next, restriction fragment length polymorphism ... match being in the 1 in a billion region. PCR is by far the most common method for presenting DNA evidence in a forensic context. Considerations ...

Homunculus

... manure for forty days, at which point the embryo would form. A variant method for creating a homunculus cited by other alchemists involved the use of ... Christianus. German horror writer Hanns Heinz Ewers used the mandrake method for creating a homunculus as the inspiration for his 1911 novel, ...

Louis Pasteur

... actually caused the disease. In the 1870s he applied this immunization method to anthrax , which affected cattle , and aroused interest in combating ... were soon placed in a crypt in the Institut Pasteur , Paris. Pasteur's method of immunization was effective and was employed by many other physicians, ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... . Interestingly, the immune system has another, equally important method to identify antigen: B cells with their membrane-bound antibodies , ... . However, there are major differences between MHC class I and II in the method and outcome of peptide presentation. Mhc Class I molecules are found ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... Magnetic Resonance Image Magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) is a method of creating images of the inside of opaque organs in living organisms as ... man who invented the MRI scanner". It is still not clear if Damadian's method of detecting cancer is working, and it is not used in modern MRI imaging ...

Sequencing

... Currently, all sequencing is performed using the chain termination method , created by Frederick Sanger . This technique can only be used to ... ABI machine), and therefore strategies to have been devised to scale the method up to sequence genes and genome. Two of the mainstream chain termination ...

Alexander Fleming

... within the community, the drug was not developed for mass distribution until World War II when Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain developed a method of purifying penicillin to a form that was useful for medical treatment of infection. For his achievements, Fleming was knighted in 1944 and ...

Apoptosis

... "Death in Embryonic Systems": "abundant death, often cataclysmic in its onslaught, is part of early development in many animals; it is the usual method of eliminating organs and tissues that are useful only during embryonic or larval ... [15] . A little further on, this author lamented that too ...

Artificial life

... life articles in the journal Nature is evidence that artificial life techniques are becoming more accepted in the mainstream, at least as a method of studying evolution . History and contributions Pre-computer A few inventions of the pre-digital era were early heralds of humankind's ...

Biotechnology

... 1856 Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance 1919 Karl Ereky , a Hungarian engineer, first used the word biotechnology 1975 method for producing monoclonal antibody developed by Kohler and Milstein 1980 Modern biotech is characterized by recombinant DNA technology . The ...

Biophysics

... 1962 Perutz M.F. The haemoglobin molecule.- Proc.Roy.Soc. , B 173, 1969, pp. 113-140 Dogonadze R.R. and Urushadze Z.D. Semi-Classical method of Calculation of Rates of Chemical Reactions Proceeding in Polar Liquids.- J.Electroanal.Chem. , 32, 1971, pp. 235-245 Volkenshtein M.V., ...

Brain

... fields studying the brain, such as computer science (as in Artificial intelligence , etc) and philosophy . Methods of observation Each method for observing activity in the brain has its advantages and drawbacks. Electrophysiology , in which wire electrodes are implanted in the brain, ...

Cellular respiration

... down the resulting pyruvate: Aerobic respiration (Cellular Respiration) Aerobic respiration requires oxygen . It is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown. A molecule of pyruvate acid travels into a mitochondrion entering the Krebs cycle . In this process it is broken down ...

Charles Darwin

... largest in Europe. At professor Robert Jameson's Wernerian Natural History Association Charles saw John James Audubon give a demonstration of his method of using wires to prop up birds to draw or paint them in natural positions. His father, unhappy that his younger son would not become a physician ...

DNA

... old cases where the perpetrator was unknown and only a DNA sample was obtained from the scene (particularly in rape cases between strangers). This method is one of the most reliable techniques for identifying a criminal, but is not always perfect, for example if no DNA can be retrieved, or if the scene ...

Edward Jenner

... the standard smallpox inoculation; the boy was completely unaffected, showing that cowpox had made him immune to smallpox. Jenner called his method vaccination, as the original infective material came from a cow (Vacca is Latin for a cow). His work was published as "An Inquiry into the Causes ...

Gel electrophoresis

... and biochemistry : Gel electrophoresis of large DNA or RNA is usually done by agarose gel electrophoresis . See the " Chain termination method " page for an example of a polyacrylamide DNA sequencing gel. Gel electrophoresis of proteins is usually done in an SDS polyacrylamide gel ( ...

Evolution

... neutral theory of molecular evolution niche construction parallel evolution quantum evolution quasispecies model scientific method sexual selection teratogenesis External links EvoWiki - A wiki dedicated to Evolution Evolution - Provided by PBS . ...

Fermentation

... that the action of the microoganisms is desirable. Brewing is the production of alcoholic beverages through fermentation . This is the method used in beer production, although the term can be used for other drinks such as sake , mead and wine . The term is also sometimes used to refer ...

Francis Galton

... His statistical study of the probability of extinction of surnames led to the concept of Galton-Watson stochastic processes . Fingerprint The method of identifying criminals by their fingerprints had been introduced in the 1860s by William Herschel (civil servant) in India, but their ...

Gel electrophoresis

... and biochemistry : Gel electrophoresis of large DNA or RNA is usually done by agarose gel electrophoresis . See the " Chain termination method " page for an example of a polyacrylamide DNA sequencing gel. Gel electrophoresis of proteins is usually done in an SDS polyacrylamide gel ( ...

Gene therapy

... Background In the 1980s, advances in molecular biology had already enabled human genes to be sequenced and cloned . Scientists looking for a method of easily producing proteins , such as the protein deficient in diabetics — insulin, investigated introducing human genes to bacterial DNA. ...

Hepatitis B

... transfusions , re-use of contaminated needles and syringes, vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth, and so on. The primary method of transmission depends on the prevalence of the disease in a given area. In low prevalence areas, such as the continental United States, IV drug ...

Human

... 2005 Boyd, Robert, and Joan B. Silk. 2003. How Humans Evolved. New York: Norton & Company. ISBN 0393978540 . Descartes, Ren. Discourse on method and Meditations on First Philosophy . ( Meditations first published 1641), Hackett Publishing Company, 1999, ISBN 0872204200 Dennett, Daniel. ...

Human Genome Project

... External links Human Genome News . Published from 1989 to 2002 by the US Department of Energy, this newsletter was a major communications method for coordination of the Human Genome Project. Complete online archives are available. Project Gutenberg hosts e-texts for Human Genome Project, ...

Isozyme

... salts which become insoluble when they are reduced by cofactors such as NAD or NADP , which generated in zones of enzyme activity. This assay method requires that the enzymes are still functional after separation (native gel electrophoresis ), and provides the greatest challenge to using isozymes ...

Lytic cycle

... should not, however, be seen as discrete and separate, but rather as somewhat interchangeable. The lytic cycle is typically thought of as the main method of viral replication, since it results in the destruction of the infected cell , which is how viruses cause damage to their hosts . Contents ...

Malaria

... of wetland breeding grounds and better sanitation eliminated it from affluent regions. Sterile insect technique is emerging as a potential method to control malaria-carrying mosquitos. Progress towards transgenic, or genetically modified insects suggests that wild mosquito populations ...

Mendelian inheritance

... characteristics such as color, shape, and position of the offspring. His data was expressed numerically and subjected to statistical analysis. This method of data reporting and the large sampling size he used gave credibility to his data. He also had the foresight to look through several successive ...

Mutagen

... the number of mutations above the natural background level. Mutagens are usually chemical compounds or radiation . The Ames test is one method to determine how mutagenic an agent is. See also DNA repair Genetics Teratogen ...

Olfaction

... 65:175-183. Turin, Luca. (1996). A spectroscopic mechanism for primary olfactory reception. Chemical Senses, 21, 773-791. Turin, Luca. (2002). A method for the calculation of odor character from molecular structure. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 216, 367-385. Stopfer, M, Jayaraman, V, Laurent, G ...
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