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Metabolic in Biological Definition

Cell metabolism

... of controlled chemical reactions called metabolic pathways . Contents ... Anabolism Anabolism is a constructive metabolic process whereby energy is consumed to ... . Catabolism Catabolism is a type of metabolic process occurring in living cells by which ...

Citric acid cycle

... aerobic organisms , the citric acid cycle is a metabolic pathway that forms part of the break down of ... to generate energy. It is the second of three metabolic pathways that are involved in fuel molecule ... of cycle and inputs and outputs 3 Major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle 4 See ...

Diabetes mellitus

... blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements. Type 1 diabetes mellitus ... ). Insulin deficiency switches many aspects of metabolic balance in a catabolic direction. The liver ... ). As the ketosis worsens, it produces a metabolic acidosis , with anorexia, abdominal distress, and ...

Enzyme

... 2.2 Specificity 2.3 Kinetics 2.4 metabolic pathways 2.5 Quantum-mechanical model of ... 4 Enzymes and health 4.1 Digestive and metabolic enzymes 5 Enzyme naming conventions ... inhibits the first common committed step. metabolic pathways Several enzymes can work together in a ...

Excretion

... Malpighian tubules is utilized to excrete metabolic waste. metabolic waste diffuses or is actively transported into ... transports the wastes to the intestines. The metabolic waste is then released from the body along with ...

Citric acid cycle

... aerobic organisms , the citric acid cycle is a metabolic pathway that forms part of the break down of ... to generate energy. It is the second of three metabolic pathways that are involved in fuel molecule ... of cycle and inputs and outputs 3 Major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle 4 See ...

Metabolism

... of sequences of enzymatic steps, also called metabolic pathways . The total metabolism are all ... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 metabolic pathways 1.1 General pathways 1.2 ... 3 See also 4 External links metabolic pathways ...

Thermoregulation

... become denatured at temperature extremes and metabolic reactions occur best at certain temperatures; ... not able to control the body temperature through metabolic regulation. Some animals living in cold ... humming birds which temporarily reduce their high metabolic rates to conserve energy. Variations in the ...

Cellular respiration

... respiration, this oxidation process is broken down into two basic metabolic pathways : glycolysis , anaerobic respiration or aerobic respiration ... Glycolysis Main article: Glycolysis Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that is found in all living organisms and does not require ...

Cold-blooded

... technically known as poikilothermic , are animals that have no internal metabolic mechanism for regulating their body temperatures. Some (usually smaller) ... radiation . As the environmental temperature increases, the animal's metabolic rate will increase. Lizards, fish, and amphibians are examples of ...

Warm-blooded

... warm-blooded animals control their body temperature by regulating their metabolic rates . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 ... winter , there may not be enough food to enable an endotherm to keep its metabolic rate stable all day, so some organisms go into a controlled state of ...

Evolution

... appear to be undergoing a steady process of degeneration [6] . Since metabolic processes do not leave fossils, research into the evolution of the basic ... of development, so it is theoretically possible to determine when certain metabolic processes appeared by comparing the traits of the descendants of a common ...

Glycolysis

... Glycolysis is the initial metabolic pathway of carbohydrate catabolism . The most common and well-known ... as in many microorganisms. Evolution Glycolysis is the only metabolic pathway common to nearly all living organisms, suggesting great antiquity; ...

Hydrolysis

... solution), a hydrolytic cleavage reaction, where the concentration of a metabolic precursor is low (on the order of 10 -3 to 10 -6 molar), is essentially ... of physiological irreversibility of hydrolysis is used consistently in metabolic pathways, since many biological processes are driven by the cleavage of ...

Insulin

... 2 Structure and production 3 Actions on cellular and metabolic level 4 Regulatory action on blood glucose 5 Signal transduction ... on the muscular layer of the arteries . Actions on cellular and metabolic level The actions of insulin on the global human metabolism level ...

Mitochondrion

... The exact number of mitochondria depends on the cell's level of metabolic activity: more activity means more mitochondria. Mitochondria can occupy ... the form of ATP , mitochondria play an important role in many important metabolic tasks, such as: Apoptosis Glutamate -mediated excitotoxic ...

Mitochondrion

... The exact number of mitochondria depends on the cell's level of metabolic activity: more activity means more mitochondria. Mitochondria can occupy ... the form of ATP , mitochondria play an important role in many important metabolic tasks, such as: Apoptosis Glutamate -mediated excitotoxic ...

Nutrition

... produced in our digestive system. They are vitally important in all the metabolic activity in our bodies. Antioxidants are another recent discovery. ... indicate that phytoestrogens in our food are related to the avoidance of metabolic syndrome, the regulation of cholestorol, and maintenance of bone density. ...

Signal transduction

... transduction include the activation of a gene , the production of metabolic energy and cell locomotion , for example through remodelling of the ... many of which are enzymes, transcription factors or other regulators of metabolic activity. Because transcription factors can activate still more genes in ...

Anabolism

... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that is characterized by growth. One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular , organ or organism level is as anabolic or catabolic . Anabolic processes tend toward "building up" organs ...

Antibiotic

... molecular equipment needed to enter a cell and actually take over the machinery of the cell to produce new viruses. Thus, the great bulk of viral metabolic biochemistry is not merely similar to human biochemistry, it actually is human biochemistry, and the possible targets of antiviral compounds are ...

Bacterium

... for this purpose are called lithotrophs and others needing organic compounds (e. g. sugars or organic acids) and are called organotrophs . The metabolic modes of energy metabolism (phototrophy or chemotrophy), reducing equivalent sources (lithotrophy or organotrophy) and carbon sources (autotrophy or ...

Bioinformatics

... tools and objects (as program modules) that make bioinformatics easier. See also biologically-inspired computing morphometrics metabolic network Important publications in bioinformatics Related fields applied mathematics — biology — computer science ...

Biochemistry

... , electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell , such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle). Today, the findings of biochemistry are used in many ...

Blood

... then returns to the heart through the veins . See circulatory system for a more detailed description of this circulation. Blood also transports metabolic waste products, drugs and other foreign chemicals to the liver to be degraded and to the kidney to be excreted in urine . A buffer solution ...

C4 carbon fixation

... For other meanings of C4 , see C4 (disambiguation) C 4 carbon fixation is a common metabolic pathway found in land plants ( C4 plants ). They are competitively superior to plants possessing the more common C3 pathway under the conditions of ...

Carbohydrate

... enough in many cases. The increase in protein means that more ammonia groups need to be removed from the blood. Catabolism There are three metabolic pathways of carbohydrate catabolism : glycolysis citric acid cycle oxidative phosphorylation See also Biochemistry ...

Anabolism

... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that is characterized by growth. One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular , organ or organism level is as anabolic or catabolic . Anabolic processes tend toward "building up" organs ...

Bioinformatics

... tools and objects (as program modules) that make bioinformatics easier. See also biologically-inspired computing morphometrics metabolic network Important publications in bioinformatics Related fields applied mathematics — biology — computer science ...

Cytoplasm

... consistency of the cell and to provide suspension to the organelles. It is also a storage place for chemical substances indispensable to life. Vital metabolic reactions take place here, for example anaerobic glycolysis and proteic synthesis . See also : microtubules , vesicle ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... within vesicles . The rough ER also modifies, folds, and controls the quality of proteins. Smooth ER The smooth ER has functions in several metabolic processes. It takes part in the synthesis of various lipids (e.g., for building membranes such as phospholipids ), fatty acids and steroids ....

Endosymbiont

... , Ophiuroidea , Asteroidea , Echinoidea , and Holothuroidea ). Little is known of the nature of the association (mode of infection, transmission, metabolic requirements, etc.) but phylogenetic analysis indicates that these symbionts belong to the alpha group of the class Proteobacteria , relating them ...

Endosymbiont

... , Ophiuroidea , Asteroidea , Echinoidea , and Holothuroidea ). Little is known of the nature of the association (mode of infection, transmission, metabolic requirements, etc.) but phylogenetic analysis indicates that these symbionts belong to the alpha group of the class Proteobacteria , relating them ...

Bacterium

... for this purpose are called lithotrophs and others needing organic compounds (e. g. sugars or organic acids) and are called organotrophs . The metabolic modes of energy metabolism (phototrophy or chemotrophy), reducing equivalent sources (lithotrophy or organotrophy) and carbon sources (autotrophy or ...

Eukaryote

... Origin and evolution The origin of the eukaryotic cell was a milestone in the evolution of life. Although eukaryotes use the same genetic code and metabolic processes as prokaryotes, their higher level of organizational complexity has permitted the development of truly multicellular organisms. Without ...

Fermentation

... In its strictest sense, fermentation (formerly called zymnosis ) is the energy-yielding anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule, such as glucose, without net oxidation. Fermentation yields lactate , acetic acid , ethanol , or some other ...

Gene

... killing the mouse. In 1941 , George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum showed that mutations in genes caused errors in certain steps in metabolic pathways . This showed that specific genes code for specific proteins, leading to the "one gene, one enzyme" hypothesis. Oswald Avery , Collin ...

Guthrie test

... The Guthrie test is a series of medical tests performed on newborns to detect several metabolic diseases . It is named after the U.S. bacteriologist Robert Guthrie , who first described it in 1963. The test is performed on blood samples ...

Photosynthesis

... chain. Factors affecting photosynthesis Light intensity and wavelength Carbon dioxide concentration Temperature In Detail metabolic pathways involved in photosynthesis: Light reaction Dark reaction See also Artificial photosynthesis External links ...

Homeostasis

... The regulation of the amounts of water and minerals in the body. This is known as osmoregulation. This happens in the kidneys. The removal of metabolic waste. This is known as excretion. This is done by the excretory organs such as the kidneys and lungs. The regulation of body temperature. This is ...
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