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Material in Biological Definition

Chromosome

... proteins , Fig. 1), and where this composite material is called chromatin . During mitosis (cell ... They cease to function as accessible genetic material and become a compact transport form. Eventually, ... rearrangement. The gain or loss of chromosome material can lead to a variety of genetic disorders . ...

Culture

... Anthropologists thus distinguish between material culture and symbolic culture , not only because ... called laws . Artifacts — things, or material culture — derive from the culture's values ... subsystem governs interaction between people. material objects and their use make up the technological ...

Diffusion

... diffusion When photons travel through a material with a high optical depth and a very short ... not always the case: during a phase separation, material can diffuse towards regions of higher ... Thermal diffusion When heat travels through a material with a thermal gradient (for example, heat ...

Eukaryote

... with complex cells , in which the genetic material is organized into membrane - bound nuclei . ... by a double membrane, with pores that allow material to move in and out. Various tube- and sheet-like ... expel excess water, and extrusomes , which expel material used to deflect predators or capture prey. In ...

Gene therapy

... attack their hosts to insert their genetic material into the genetic material of the host. This genetic material contains instructions to produce these viruses. ...

Hershey-Chase experiment

... Chase that identified DNA to be the genetic material of phages and, ultimately, of all organisms. A ... phage infects a bacterium, it inserts its genetic material into the bacterium, while its coat remains ... experiments demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of phage and that protein does not transmit ...

Mitosis

... division that follows replication of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. This process assures that ... G1, the first growth phase; S, where the genetic material is duplicated; G2, the second growth phase; and ... Main article: Prophase The genetic material ( DNA ), which normally exists in the form of ...

Molecular evolution

... evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. The genetic material consists of DNA , long sequences of nucleotides ... are not considered to be organisms. The genetic material in viruses may consist of DNA or RNA. ...

Origin of life

... because life arising in a puddle of organic material is likely to consume all of its food and become ... tar -like substance composed of complex organic material formed from simple carbon compounds after ... light. It is supposed that a rain of cometary material on the early Earth could have brought significant ...

Parthenogenesis

... the sperm cell does not contribute any genetic material to the offspring. Since gynogenetic species lack ... fertilization of eggs by a male, introducing new material to the gene pool. Hybridogenesis In ... males and both individuals contribute genetic material to the offspring. But when the female offspring ...

Passive transport

... Diffusion Diffusion is the net movement of material from an area of high concentration of that material to an area with lower concentration. The ... has been eliminated. Since diffusion moves material from area of higher concentration to the lower, ...

Paternity testing

... to create a unique combination of genetic material in a new cell, so the genetic material of an individual is derived from the genetic material of their parents. This ...

Patau syndrome

... 13 in some or all of their cells. The extra material disrupts the normal course of development, ... have two copies of chromosome 13, plus extra material from chromosome 13 attached to another ... person can carry a rearrangement of genetic material between chromosome 13 and another chromosome. ...

Phage

... an outer protein hull and the enclosed genetic material (which consists of double-stranded DNA in 95% ... have a tail to let them inject their genetic material into the host. Phages were discovered ... harmless state, either integrating their genetic material into the chromosomal DNA of the host ...

RNA

... form (an exception being the genetic material of some kinds of viruses ). RNA molecules often ... , but many others exist. RNA forms the genetic material ( genomes ) of some kinds of viruses. Double-stranded RNA ( dsRNA ) is used as the genetic material of some RNA viruses and is involved in some ...

Mitosis

... division that follows replication of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. This process assures that ... G1, the first growth phase; S, where the genetic material is duplicated; G2, the second growth phase; and ... Main article: Prophase The genetic material ( DNA ), which normally exists in the form of ...

Virus

... for the proteins needed to package its genetic material , but for proteins needed by the virus during ... endocytosis , the process whereby cells take in material from the external environment. After entering the cell, the virus's genetic material begins the destructive process of taking over ...

X chromosome

... more than 153 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents about 5 percent of the ... the X chromosome in a male's cells. Extra genetic material from the X chromosome interferes with male sexual ... (48,XXYY) in each cell. The extra genetic material may lead to mental retardation and other medical ...

Biomechanics

... within the body, such as skin, bone, and arteries each possess unique material properties. The passive mechanical response of a particular tissue can be ... as collagen and elastin, for example, exhibit such a behavior. Some common material models include the Neo-Hookean behavior, often used for modeling elastin, ...

Bone

... General overview It is a relatively hard and light- weight composite material , formed mostly of calcium phosphate (in the chemical arrangement termed ... . Cut and polished bone from a variety of animals is sometimes used as material for jewelry and other crafts. Terminology General ...

DNA virus

... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. Viruses that either have RNA as their genetic material or use an RNA intermediate during replication are called RNA viruses . ...

Edward Jenner

... James Phipps in the same manner as used in smallpox inoculation, but using material from a cowpox pustule. The boy contracted cowpox, and after six weeks, ... Jenner called his method vaccination, as the original infective material came from a cow (Vacca is Latin for a cow). His work was published as ...

Evolution

... mutations. Mutations are permanent, transmissible changes to the genetic material (usually DNA or RNA ) of a cell , and can be caused by "copying errors" in the genetic material during cell division and by exposure to radiation , chemicals, or ...

Photosynthesis

... from inorganic compounds, instead of eating other organisms or relying on material derived from them. Most notably, they use carbon dioxide gas and water ... is variously used to form other organic compounds, such as the building material cellulose , or it may be used as a fuel. This takes place through ...

Human

... expectations and informal sanctions too. Artifacts – things, or material culture – derive from the culture's values and norms. The ... ( tribes , ethnicities , nations ) or common geographical location and material interests ( states ), which are often further divided into social classes ...

Molecular biology

... the process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material . The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being an ...

Oswald Avery

... discovery in 1944 with his co-worker Maclyn McCarty that DNA is the material of which genes and chromosomes are made. Previously, heredity ... was a simple one in concept. Bacteria are able to transfer genetic material through a liquid medium to other bacteria, transforming (giving new ...

Photosynthesis

... from inorganic compounds, instead of eating other organisms or relying on material derived from them. Most notably, they use carbon dioxide gas and water ... is variously used to form other organic compounds, such as the building material cellulose , or it may be used as a fuel. This takes place through ...

Pigment

... In biology , pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. Some biological material has so-called structural color, which is the result of selective ...

Plant

... by land plants and algae are the ultimate source of energy and organic material in nearly all habitats. These processes also radically changed the ... by erosion . Petrified wood is often heavily silicified (the organic material replaced by silicon dioxide ), and the impregnated tissue is often ...

Plant

... by land plants and algae are the ultimate source of energy and organic material in nearly all habitats. These processes also radically changed the ... by erosion . Petrified wood is often heavily silicified (the organic material replaced by silicon dioxide ), and the impregnated tissue is often ...

Prophase

... Prophase is a stage of mitosis . In prophase the genetic material ( DNA ), which normally exists in the form of chromatin , condenses into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome . Since the genetic material has been duplicated, there are two identical copies of each chromosome in ...

RNA virus

... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material , or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. For example, ...

Species

... biological species is that there is no significant cross-flow of genetic material between the two populations. A mate-recognition species is ... can fuse together in the body to yield hybrid cells that contain genetic material from both ... "What we found was completely unexpected", says ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... as in the case of MAOIs, 5-HTP supplements are claimed to provide more raw material to be used in the body's natural serotonin production process. This raw material that is processed by the body to produce needed serotonin is called ...

Substrate

... . In industrial printing , substrate is used to describe the base material that images will be printed onto. Depending on the printing process and ... using epitaxial crystal growth and photolithography . Depending on the material and application the substrates can be between 5 and 30 cm in diameter. ...

Y chromosome

... The Y chromosome spans about 50 million base pairs (the building material of DNA ) and represents between 1.5 and 2 percent of the total DNA in ... copy of the Y chromosome in every cell (polysomy Y). The extra genetic material in these cases can lead to skeletal abnormalities, decreased IQ, and ...

Absorption spectrum

... However, this is emitted in all directions, not just in the direction in which the electromagnetic radiation was originally travelling. If the material is a gas, this results in dark absorption lines seen in the spectrum when viewed through a spectroscope . The wavelengths of these lines shown are ...

Affinity chromatography

... Of course if the object is to remove an undesirable molecule from the initial mixture, then once the initial binding has been achieved, the material of interest is the unbound mixture, and the washing and elution steps can be omitted or used simply for analytical purposes. Specific Uses ...

Apoptosis

... generated in this disease, are derived from nucleosomes. As nucleosomes are mainly generated during programmed cell death, excess of apoptotic material and altered clearance may induce autoreactive immune responses. On the other side of the spectrum, failure to die, as exemplified in MRL/1pr mice and ...
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