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Mammals in Biological Definition

Brain

... (Martin, 1996). More complex vertebrates like mammals have developed six-layered neocortex in ... integration center in the brain, whereas in mammals this role has been adopted by the cerebrum. ... systems within the brain. Cognitive processing in mammals occurs in the cerebral cortex but relies on ...

Cell growth

... size regulation 1.2 Cell size regulation in mammals 1.3 Other experimental systems for the study ... grow larger. Cell size regulation in mammals The protein mTOR is a serine/threonine ... such as rapid action potential propagation. mammals also use this trick for increasing the speed of ...

Cryptozoology

... people 2.3 Bipedal monsters 2.4 Carnivorous mammals 2.5 Herbivorous mammals 2.6 Sea and lake monsters 2.7 Reptiles ... Monster Shadowman Carnivorous mammals The Beast of Bodmin The Beast of Exmoor ...

Immune system

... in operation. Higher vertebrates and all mammals have both an innate and an adaptive immune ... toll-like receptors , which are the receptors in mammals that are responsible for a large proportion of ... the acquired immune system, ensures that most mammals that survive an initial infection by a pathogen ...

Marine biology

... 3.3 Other sea life 3.4 Fish 3.5 Marine mammals 4 Reefs 5 Deep sea and trenches ... include sharks and barracuda . Marine mammals There are five main types of marine mammals. ... Ursidae ) are sometimes considered marine mammals because of their dependence on the sea. In the ...

Olfaction

... discovered by Linda B. Buck and Richard Axel , mammals generally have about 1000 genes for odor ... tongue out and touching it to the organ. Some mammals make a face called flehmen to direct air to ... of smell varies among different organisms: most mammals have a good sense of smell, whereas most birds ...

Thermoregulation

... 3.2.1 Heat production in birds and mammals 4 Behavioral temperature regulation ... their surroundings. There are, however, certain mammals which are exceptions, being warm-blooded during ... insulators (sometimes used by humans). Hair in mammals also acts as a good insulator; mammalian skin is ...

Vitamin

... need different trace organic substances. Most mammals need, with few exceptions, the same vitamins as ... One notable exception is ascorbic acid ; most mammals can synthesize this. The less related a species is to mammals , the more different the organisms' requirements ...

Carolus Linnaeus

... for their mammary glands because one of the defining characteristics of mammals is that they nurse their young. (Of all the features distinguishing the mammals from other animals, Linnaeus may have picked this one because of his views ...

Collagen

... in crystalline form. Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Features of ... The white collagen that makes up the matrix of most connective tissue in mammals consists of inter-woven fibres of the protein collagen. The collagen ...

Lung

... Birds have a significantly different structure to their lungs than mammals do. In addition to the lungs themselves, birds have posterior and anterior ... from inhaled air. Birds are thus equipped to fly at altitudes at which mammals would succumb to hypoxia . Reptilian lungs Amphibian lungs ...

Acrosome

... animals, the acrosome develops over the anterior half of its head. It is a cap-like structure derived from the Golgi apparatus . In Eutherian mammals , acrosome formation is completed during testicular maturation. The acrosome contains digestive enzymes (including hyaluronidase and acrosin ) ...

Acrosome

... animals, the acrosome develops over the anterior half of its head. It is a cap-like structure derived from the Golgi apparatus . In Eutherian mammals , acrosome formation is completed during testicular maturation. The acrosome contains digestive enzymes (including hyaluronidase and acrosin ) ...

Adaptive radiation

... the Galapagos islands developed from a single species of finches that reached the islands. Other examples include the introduction of predatory mammals to Australia by humans, the development of the first birds , which suddenly were able to expand their territory into the air, or the development ...

Animal

... cucumbers . The latter are dominated by the vertebrates , animals with backbones. These include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals . In addition to these, the deuterostomes also include the Hemichordata or acorn worms. Although they are not especially prominent today, the ...

Antigenic shift

... influenza A, B and C. Antigenic shift, however, occurs only in influenza A because it infects more than just humans. Affected species include other mammals and birds, giving influenza A the opportunity for a major reorganization of surface antigens. Influenza B and C only infect humans, minimizing the ...

Barr body

... a Barr body is the inactive X chromosome in a female cell, or the inactive Z in a male. This happens early in embryonic development at random in mammals , except in marsupials and in some extra-embryonic tissues of some placental mammals, in which the father's X chromosome is always deactivated. ...

Bacterium

... eats. The great antiquity of the bacteria has enabled them to evolve a great deal of genetic diversity. They are far more diverse than, say, the mammals or insects . For instance, the genetic distance between E. coli and Thermus aquaticus is greater than the distance between humans and oak ....

Carnivore

... New York named Carnivore . Carnivores are animals that eat a diet consisting mostly of meat . Also, the word could refer to the mammals of the Order Carnivora , many (but not all) of which fit the first definition. Bears are an example of members of Carnivora that are not true ...

Cladistics

... the other group in question. Conversely, one clade or species can be described as nested within another. Thus in a cladogram that includes four mammals and a bird, the bird's branch is basal, but a dog would be nested within the mammals. Similarly, a character-state (see below) that seems to be ...

Ploidy

... from a diploid cell. This is a laboratory procedure that forces a normal cell to spit out half of its chromosome content, leaving just one set. In mammals this renders this cell equal to sperm or egg . This was one of the procedures used by Japanese researchers to produce Kaguya the fatherless ...

Escherichia coli

... to E. coli ) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals ) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. Its presence in groundwater is a common indicator of fecal contamination. ("Enteric" is the ...

Warm-blooded

... versus cold-blooded 3 In between cold and warm blooded 4 See also 5 External links Mechanisms Endotherms include birds , mammals , and insects . The advantages of endothermy are increased enzyme activity and a constant body temperature, allowing these animals to be active ...

Bacterium

... eats. The great antiquity of the bacteria has enabled them to evolve a great deal of genetic diversity. They are far more diverse than, say, the mammals or insects . For instance, the genetic distance between E. coli and Thermus aquaticus is greater than the distance between humans and oak ....

Excretion

... by which an organism separates waste products from its body. The waste products are then usually expelled from the body by elimination . In mammals , for example, the two major excretory processes are the formation of urine in the kidneys and the formation of feces in the intestines . The ...

Flaviviridae

... Flavivirus Pestivirus Hepacivirus The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that infect mammals . They include the following genera: Genus Flavivirus (type species Yellow fever virus , others include West Nile virus ) Genus ...

Fungus

... planet and include important decomposers and parasites , like mold and mildew . Parasitic fungi infect animals , including humans , other mammals , birds , and insects , with consequences varying from mild itching to death . Other parasitic fungi infect plants , causing diseases such as ...

Glycoprotein

... least in part located in extracellular space (that is, outside the cell ). Glycoproteins are important for immune cell recognition, especially in mammals . Examples of glycoproteins in the immune system are: molecules such as antibodies (immunoglobulins) which interact directly with antigens ...

Ploidy

... from a diploid cell. This is a laboratory procedure that forces a normal cell to spit out half of its chromosome content, leaving just one set. In mammals this renders this cell equal to sperm or egg . This was one of the procedures used by Japanese researchers to produce Kaguya the fatherless ...

Hermaphrodite

... several nights. Gonadal dysgenesis , a type of intersexuality formerly known as "True Hermaphroditism", occurs in about one percent of mammals (including humans ), but it is extremely rare for both sets of sexual organs to be functional, usually neither set is functional. In many cases, ...

Homeobox

... found in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and have subsequently been identified in many other species, from insects to reptiles and mammals . The diagram to the right is a structural model of the Rattus norvegicus Pit-1 homeobox-containing protein (purple) bound to DNA. Pit-1 is a ...

Homeostasis

... are unpredictable (the resulting effect of a precise action often has the opposite effect to what was expected). Main examples of homeostasis in mammals are as follows: The regulation of the amounts of water and minerals in the body. This is known as osmoregulation. This happens in the kidneys. ...

Human

... long-term habitation of these environments is not yet possible. Humans, with a population of about six billion, are one of the most numerous mammals on Earth. Most humans (61%) live in the Asian region. The vast majority of the remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (13%) and ...

Human Genome Project

... level. Many questions about the similarities and differences between humans and our closest relatives (the primates , and indeed the other mammals ) are expected to be illuminated by the data from this project. See also: genetics , bioinformatics References Barnhart, Benjamin J. ...

Insectivore

... nevertheless use insects as a protein supplement, particularly when they are breeding. The biological order Insectivora includes a number of mammals which happen to be insectivores, but there is no necessary link. Just as many members of the order known as Carnivora are actually omnivores (and ...

Insulin

... bonds 4. Leader and C chain are cut off 5. Insulin molecule remains Structure and production Insulin is synthesized in humans and other mammals within the beta cells (B-cells) of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. One to three million islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets) form ...

Keratin

... is approximately 14% cysteine. There are two main forms of keratin, alpha-keratin and beta-keratin . Alpha-keratin is seen in humans and other mammals , beta-keratin is present in birds and reptiles . Beta-keratin is harder than alpha-keratin. Structurally alpha-keratin have alpha-helical ...

Klinefelter's syndrome

... chromosome, individuals with the abnormality are usually referred to as "XXY Males" rather than as "suffering from Klinefelter's syndrome." In mammals with more than one X chromosome, the genes on all but one X chromosome are barred from being expressed. This happens in XXY males as well as XX ...

Limbic system

... The limbic system is among the oldest parts of the brain in evolutionary terms: it can be found in fish , amphibians , reptiles and mammals . The pleasure center is located in the limbic system. It is involved in sexual arousal and in the "high" derived from certain recreational ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... composition and genomic arrangement varies widely. Chickens , for instance, have one of the smallest known MHC regions (19 genes), though most mammals have an MHC structure and composition fairly similar to that of humans. Gene duplication is almost certainly responsible for much of the genic ...
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