... Red blood cell infected with P.vivax
( Italian : " bad air "; formerly called ague ... in the tropics and sub-Saharan Africa .
is caused by the protozoan parasite , ... Physiology or Medicine in 1907 .
Symptoms of malaria
include fever , shivering , arthralgia (joint ...
... been used for medicinal purposes since before the beginning of recorded history. For example, quinine comes from cinchona tree (used to treat malaria
), digitalis from the foxglove plant (chronic heart trouble), and morphine from the poppy plant (pain relief). According the National Cancer ...
... contact. Owing to blood-borne infections, bloodstained objects are treated as a biohazard .
Infection of the blood is bacteremia or sepsis . malaria
and trypanosomiasis are blood-borne parasitic infections.
Blood transfusion is the most direct therapeutic use of blood. It is ...
... (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo ). Mabelo Lokela checked into the local hospital with a fever . One of the nurses assumed Lokela had malaria
and gave him a quinine shot. When Lokela returned home from the hospital and died, the women of his family conducted a traditional African ...
... the heterozygote is more fit than either of the homozygous forms (famously exemplified by human sickle cell anemia conferring resistance to malaria
Frequency-dependent selection , where the rare variants have a higher fitness.
The central role of natural selection in evolutionary ...
... is the study of those parasites which infect humans. These include unicellular organisms such as Plasmodium spp., the organism which causes malaria
, Leishmania donovani , the organism which causes leishmaniasis and multicellular organisms such as Schistosoma spp., Wuchereria bancrofti ...
... MNS systems gives blood types of M, N, and MN. It has use in tests of maternity or paternity.
Duffy negative blood gives partial immunity to malaria
The Lutheran system describes a set of 21 antigens.
Other systems include Colton , Kell , Kidd , Lewis , Landsteiner-Wiener , P , Yt ...
... Economics of vaccine development
One challenge in vaccine development is economic: many of the diseases most demanding a vaccine, including HIV , malaria
and Tuberculosis , exist principally in poor countries. Pharmaceutical firms and biotech companies have little incentive to develop vaccines for ...