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Major in Biological Definition

Animal

... Annelida (segmented worms) Animals are a major group of organisms , classified as the kingdom ... the Bilateria. Most appear to belong to four major lineages: Deuterostomes Ecdysozoa ... that appear to have diverged before these major groups. These include the Acoelomorpha , ...

Biology

... , it is nevertheless characterized by several major principles and concepts which include: ... phylogenetics , phenetics , and cladistics . major events in the evolution of life, as biologists ... , systematics and taxonomy . The two major traditional taxonomically-oriented disciplines ...

Bacterium

... Bacteria (singular, bacterium ) are a major group of living organisms . They are ... has variously applied to all prokaryotes or to a major group of them, depending on ideas about their ... cyanobacteria) were recognized as one of two major divisions of the living world, together with the ...

Bioinformatics

... biology often overlaps with systems biology . major research efforts in the field include sequence ... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 major research areas 1.1 Sequence analysis ... 5 Bibliography 6 External links major research areas Sequence analysis Main ...

Blood

... Humans Human blood is a liquid tissue ; its major function is to transport oxygen necessary to ... a role in many diseases. Wounds can cause major blood loss. The thrombocytes cause the blood to ... of cancers of the blood-forming tissues. major blood loss, whether traumatic or not (e.g. during ...

Brain

... large areas of the brain, sometimes causing major deficits in intelligence , memory and control of ... of blood vessels in the brain, is another major cause of death and brain damage. Other problems ... In vertebrates, a gross division into three major parts is used: hindbrain ( medulla oblongata ...

Cell growth

... The process of cell reproduction has three major parts. The first part of cell reproduction ... of the parental cell's DNA . The second major issue is the separation of the duplicated DNA ... equally sized groups of chromosomess . The third major aspect of cell reproduction is the physical ...

Citric acid cycle

... 2 Location of cycle and inputs and outputs 3 major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle ... energy and can release it when needed. major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle Figure 2: Schematic drawing of the major metabolic pathways associated with the citric ...

Bioinformatics

... biology often overlaps with systems biology . major research efforts in the field include sequence ... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 major research areas 1.1 Sequence analysis ... 5 Bibliography 6 External links major research areas Sequence analysis Main ...

Bacterium

... Bacteria (singular, bacterium ) are a major group of living organisms . They are ... has variously applied to all prokaryotes or to a major group of them, depending on ideas about their ... cyanobacteria) were recognized as one of two major divisions of the living world, together with the ...

Evolution

... theory underlying the modern synthesis has three major aspects: The common descent of all ... the Burgess Shale ) saw the creation of all the major body plans, or phyla , of modern animals. About ... the importance of genetic drift as a major mechanism of evolution. Debates have continued ...

Gene duplication

... . The postulate that gene duplication has a major role in evolution was developed in the 1980s and is now widely accepted as a major evolutionary force. Some have argued that gene ... emergence of the universal common ancestor . major genome duplication events are not uncommon. It ...

Immune system

... molecules of a large glycoprotein called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These proteins ... adaptive immune system can be divided into two major sections: The humoral immune system , ... they develop in the thymus ). There are two major types of T cells: Cytotoxic T cells (T C ...

Insulin

... the pancreas and diabetes. In 1901 another major step was taken by Eugene Opie , when he clearly ... well. With the supply problem solved, the next major effort was to purify the protein. In December ... on their offer in April. In November Lilly made a major breakthrough, and were able to produce large ...

Citric acid cycle

... 2 Location of cycle and inputs and outputs 3 major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle ... energy and can release it when needed. major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle Figure 2: Schematic drawing of the major metabolic pathways associated with the citric ...

Liver

... in vertebrates including humans. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of ... right kidney . The liver is supplied by two major blood vessels: the hepatic artery and the ... Fetal blood supply In the growing fetus, a major source of blood to the liver is the umbilical ...

Animal

... Annelida (segmented worms) Animals are a major group of organisms , classified as the kingdom ... the Bilateria. Most appear to belong to four major lineages: Deuterostomes Ecdysozoa ... that appear to have diverged before these major groups. These include the Acoelomorpha , ...

Outbreak

... a region), or pandemic (a global epidemic). major human epidemic viruses include influenza , Human ... rubella . Smallpox has been eradicated as a major epidemic virus, however emerging viruses and ... over 20 years ago, and it has grown to become a major epidemic. Other emerging viruses include Severe ...

Phospholipid

... backbone; sphingomyelin . Phospholipids are a major component of all biological membranes , along ... choline Phosphatidyl choline is the major component of lecithin . Phosphatidyl ethanolamine Phosphatidyl ethanolamine is the major component of cephalin . Phosphatidyl ...

Plant

... - flowering plants Plants are a major group of living things (about 300,000 species), ... comprising the flowering plants , were the last major group of plants to appear, emerging from within ... no seeds. The Coal Measures are a major source of Palaeozoic plant fossils, with many ...

Plant

... - flowering plants Plants are a major group of living things (about 300,000 species), ... comprising the flowering plants , were the last major group of plants to appear, emerging from within ... no seeds. The Coal Measures are a major source of Palaeozoic plant fossils, with many ...

Alcohol

... Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Alcohols There are three major subsets of alcohols- 'primary' (1), 'secondary' (2) and 'tertiary' (3), ... ethanol rendered undrinkable by the addition of methanol. Aside from its major use in alcoholic beverages, ethanol is also used (though highly ...

Alpha helix

... In proteins , the α helix is a major structural motif in secondary structure . It was first postulated by ... of the α helix diameter of 12 being the same as the width of the major groove in B-form DNA . α helices are one of the basic structural ...

Anatomy

... there is animal anatomy ( zootomy ) and plant anatomy ( phytonomy ). The major branches of anatomy include comparative anatomy and human anatomy . ... on which the modern scientific groundwork of anatomy is built. major body systems: Integumentary system Muscular system Nervous ...

Apoptosis

... molecule ( cytokine ) produced mainly by activated macrophages, and is the major extrinsic mediator of apoptosis. The cell membrane has two specialized ... that this similarity made the worm cell-death pathway suddenly a topic of major interest in the biomedical community, as this pathway was no longer simply ...

Chromatin

... The nucleic acids are generally in the form of double-stranded DNA. The major proteins involved in chromatin are histone proteins . In a ... The nucleic acids are generally in the form of double-stranded DNA. The major proteins involved in chromatin are histone proteins. In a eukaryotic cell, ...

Edward's syndrome

... Only 5 - 10% of liveborn infants will survive their first year of life. major causes of death include apnea and heart abnormalities. It is impossible ... peers - walking, talking, attending school, holding down a job, etc. As major medical interventions are routinely withheld from these children, it is ...

Human Genome Project

... questions can now be framed in terms of molecular biology ; indeed, many major evolutionary milestones (the emergence of the ribosome and organelles , ... from 1989 to 2002 by the US Department of Energy, this newsletter was a major communications method for coordination of the Human Genome Project. ...

Leaf

... venation ) : There are two subtypes of venation, craspedodromus (the major veins stretch up to the margin of the leaf) and camptodromous (major ... from the base to the apex. Commissural veins (small veins) connect the major parallel veins. Typical for most monocotyledons , such as grasses . ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... The major histocompatibility complex ( MHC ) is a large genomic region or gene ... cell's exterior surface for recognition by T cells . However, there are major differences between MHC class I and II in the method and outcome of ...

Osmoregulation

... as another; no net movement of water. Forms of osmoregulation Two major types of osmoregulation are osmoconformers and ... in the kidney to reabsorb water and prevent it from being excreted. A major way animals have evolved to osmoregulate is by controlling the amount of ...

Paleontology

... Palynology is the study of pollen, whether modern or geological. The major subdivisions of paleontology include paleozoology (animals), ... taphonomy , the study of what happens to organisms after they expire. major areas of study include the correlation of rock strata with their ...

Physiology

... traits changed throughout the evolutionary history of animals. Other major branches of scientific study that have grown out of physiology research ... environments. In organisms such as these, dehydration becomes a major issue. Dehydration in humans can occur during elevated physical ...

Stem cell

... cells, which otherwise multiply uncontrollably, producing cancer . A major development in research came in May 2003 , when researchers announced ... cells switched to neurons In Jan. 2005, using stem cells science made major progress in understanding the process of how mammalian stem cells ...

Alga

... first groups of living things to appear in the fossil record , dating back some 3800 million years ago ( Precambrian ) when they may have played a major role in creating Earth's oxygen atmosphere. They have a prokaryotic cell structure typical of bacteria and conduct photosynthesis directly ...

Antibiotic

... the infection and the concentration of antibiotic obtainable in the affected tissue. Side effects Side effects range from slight headache to a major allergic reaction. One of the more common side effects is diarrhea , which results from the antibiotic disrupting the balance of intestinal flora, ...

Antibiotic resistance

... food additives for growth promotion. Resistant pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (colloquially known as "Staph aureus") is one of the major resistant pathogens. Found on the mucous membranes and the skin of around a third of the population, it is extremely adaptable to antibiotic ...

Antigenic shift

... in influenza A because it infects more than just humans. Affected species include other mammals and birds, giving influenza A the opportunity for a major reorganization of surface antigens. Influenza B and C only infect humans, minimizing the chance to mutate drastically. Flu strains are named after ...

Archaea

... Methanopyri Archaeoglobi Thermoplasmata Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota The Archaea are a major group of prokaryotes . Their classification among living things is difficult because they are similar to bacteria in some respects but similar to ...

ATP synthase

... an asymmetrical gamma subunit. Facilitated diffusion of protons causes the F O particle to rotate, rotating the gamma subunit of F 1 , while the major F 1 subunits are fixed in place. This rotation forces a conformational change in the F 1 particle, eventually leading to the synthesis of ATP. For ...
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