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Macromolecules in Biological Definition

Macromolecule

... used to refer to aggregates of two or more macromolecules held together by intermolecular forces rather ... usage is common in particular when the individual macromolecules involved aggregate or "assemble" spontaneously ... complex . In such a context, individual macromolecules are often referred to as subunits (see e.g. ...

Structural biology

... biology is the study of the architecture and shape of biological macromolecules -- proteins and nucleic acids in particular--and what causes them to ... they have. This subject is of great interest to biologists, because macromolecules carry out most of the functions of a cell , and because typically it only ...

Biophysics

... links Overview Traditional studies in biology are conducted using statistical ensemble experiments, using molar concentrations of macromolecules . Because the molecules that comprise living cells are so small, techniques such as PCR amplification, gel blotting, fluorescence labeling and ...

Carbohydrate

... pathways of carbohydrate catabolism : glycolysis citric acid cycle oxidative phosphorylation See also Biochemistry macromolecules Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Pentose phosphate pathway External links IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical ...

Cytoplasm

... . Components of the cytoplasm The aqueous component of the cytoplasm (making up 80 percent of it) is composed of ions and soluble macromolecules like enzymes , carbohydrates , different salts and proteins , as well as a great proportion of ARN . The cytoplasm's watery component is also ...

Denaturation

... Denaturation in Biochemistry refers to a structural change in macromolecules caused by extreme conditions. Denaturation can refer to the intentional adulteration of ethyl alcohol so that it is unsuitable as a ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... means "within the cytoplasm ", reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells . The ER modifies proteins , makes macromolecules , and transfers substances throughout the cell. Prokaryotic organisms do not have organelles and thus do not have an ER. ER's base structure and ...

Endomembrane system

... acts as the packaging and delivery system for molecules. Lysosomes are the "digestive" units of the cell. They utilize enzymes to break down macromolecules and also act as a waste disposal system. Vacuoles act as storage units in some cells. Vesicles are small membrane-enclosed transport units ...

Evolution

... Archea , Bacteria , Eukaryota ) or the origin of life . Attempts to shed light on the earliest history of life generally focus on the behavior of macromolecules , particularly RNA , and the behavior of complex systems . Though the origins of life are murky, other milestones in the evolutionary history of ...

Molecular genetics

... of RNA interference and the creation of transgenic organisms that overexpress a gene of interest. Related topics The study of macromolecules important in biological inheritance forward and reverse genetics screens RNA interference gene knockout transgenics and ...

Protein

... serve as the source of amino acids for organisms that do not synthesize those amino acids natively. Proteins are one of the classes of bio- macromolecules , alongside polysaccharides and nucleic acids , that make up the primary constituents of living things . They are amongst the most actively ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... means "within the cytoplasm ", reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells . The ER modifies proteins , makes macromolecules , and transfers substances throughout the cell. Prokaryotic organisms do not have organelles and thus do not have an ER. ER's base structure and ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... means "within the cytoplasm ", reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells . The ER modifies proteins , makes macromolecules , and transfers substances throughout the cell. Prokaryotic organisms do not have organelles and thus do not have an ER. ER's base structure and ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... means "within the cytoplasm ", reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells . The ER modifies proteins , makes macromolecules , and transfers substances throughout the cell. Prokaryotic organisms do not have organelles and thus do not have an ER. ER's base structure and ...

Vesicle

... also in the endoplasmic reticulum , or are made from parts of the plasma membrane . Lysosomes (membrane-bound digestive vesicles) can digest macromolecules (break them down to small compounds) that were taken in from the outside of the cell by an endocytic vesicle. This is the basic way for a cell to ...

X-ray crystallography

... structure, one must first grow crystals of the molecule of interest using some method of crystallization . This can be a painstaking procedure for macromolecules such as protein and DNA complexes. The crystals are harvested and often frozen with liquid nitrogen . Freezing crystals both reduces radiation ...
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