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Lower in Biological Definition

Leaf

... An epidermis that covers the upper and lower surfaces An interior chlorenchyma called the ... dorsoventral anatomy: the upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) surfaces have somewhat different ... water loss. The cuticle may be thinner on the lower epidermis than on the upper epidermis; and is ...

Lichen

... resembles the upper surface and is called the lower cortex , consisting of densely packed fungal hyphae. The lower cortex often bears structures, such as rhizinae ... of small scale-like structures, lacking a lower cortex), e.g., Normandina pulchella ...

Thermoregulation

... of that of the surrounding air, whereas among the lower animals there is much variation of body ... animal back again, for the time being, on to a lower plane of evolution. Ectotherms Main ... from comparatively slight causes. Of the lower warm-blooded animals, there are some that appear ...

Amine

... Reactions 5 Aromatic amines 6 See also Naming lower amines are named with the suffix -amine . Methylamine Higher ... tertiary amines using strong acids like HI, HBr, or HCl does not lead to a lower grade amine and an alkylhalide, hence the nitrogen-group is not a ...

Cancer

... taking dietary fiber supplements compared with those receiving much lower amounts of supplemental wheat bran fiber. On the other hand, there is ... cancer . Finasteride , a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor , has been shown to lower the risk of prostate cancer. Other examples of drugs that show promise for ...

Diabetes mellitus

... (especially sodium and potassium) Insulin to reverse the ketosis and lower the glucose Careful monitoring to detect and treat complications ... hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Adequate control of diabetes leads to a lower risk of the complications of uncontrolled diabetes which include kidney ...

Enzyme

... by attaching it to a rope attached to a hanging weight. In order to lower the total net energy, the system will drive the coupled reactions in one ... reaction rate by favoring or enabling a different reaction pathway with a lower activation energy , making it easier for the reaction to occur. The ...

Fermentation

... by the yeast later in the brewing process. Doing the latter rest at the lower end of the range produces more low-order sugars which are more fermentable by the yeast . This in turn creates a beer lower in body and higher in alcohol . While a rest closer to the higher end of ...

Plasmolysis

... membrane moving from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water concentration outside the cell. It is unlikely to occur in nature, ... in the center of the cell originally contains a dilute solution with much lower osmotic pressure than that of the calcium nitrate solution on the other ...

Stoma

... - potassium pumps. Dicotyledons usually have more stomata on the lower epidermis than the upper epidermis. As these leaves are held ... If the plant has floating leaves, there will be no stomata on the lower epidermis as it can absorb gases directly from water through cuticle . ...

Activation energy

... on the enthalpy profile diagram, Fig. 1 , as both positions lie below the transition state). A substance that modifies the transition state to lower the activation energy is termed a catalyst ; a biological catalyst is termed an enzyme . Fig 1. The enthalpy profile of a reaction ...

Active transport

... which allows three sodium ions into the cell to transport one calcium out. Many cells also posses a calcium ATPase, which can operate at lower intracellular concentrations of calcium and sets the normal or resting concentration of this important second messenger . But the ATPase exports ...

Albumin

... nephrotic syndrome, this property is lost, and there is more albumin loss in the urine. Because smaller animals (for example rats ) function at a lower blood pressure , they need less oncotic pressure to balance this, and thus need less albumin to maintain proper fluid distribution. Functions of ...

Anatomy

... of the development (embryology) and comparative anatomy (morphology), as far as vertebrate animals are concerned; but only those parts of the lower animals which are of interest in explaining human body structure are here dealt with. The articles have a twofold purpose; first, to give enough ...

Chromatography

... tend to be retained on the column, eluting more readily as the proportion of the hydrophobic component of the mobile phase is increased. RP-HPLC has lower resolution than GC. Gel permeation chromatography Gel permeation chromatography , also known as size exclusion chromatography or Sephadex ...

Cloning

... as the best cloners in the galaxy. Metropolis : a movie in which the workers are cloned. Brave New World : the population is grown.The lower castes are cloned from a single egg (Bokanofskyfied ). External links Cloning in Focus , an accessible and comprehensive look at cloning ...

Dialysis

... permitting dialysis fluid to drain out. The clamp to the drain bag is briefly opened and some fluid is drained directly from the upper bag into the lower bag. This clears the line of air and other impurities. The drain line is then clamped off and the twist valve on the catheter end is opened. This ...

Diffusion

... through the wall of the balloon and escape, resulting in the balloon slowly deflating. Other air molecules (e.g. oxygen , nitrogen ) have lower mobilities and thus diffuse more slowly through the balloon wall. There is a concentration gradient in the balloon wall because the balloon was ...

DNA

... slowly replicating organisms, however, which may explain why only viruses carry single-stranded DNA. These viruses presumably also benefit from the lower cost of replicating one strand versus two. The history of DNA research James Watson in the Cavendish Laboratory at the ...

Escherichia coli

... Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli ) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals ) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. Its presence in ...

Ebola

... two strains identified in 1976 were named Ebola–Zare (EBO–Z) and Ebola–Sudan (EBO–S) . The outbreak in Sudan showed a lower fatality rate — 50% — compared to the 90% mortality rate of the Zare strain. In 1990 , a third, similar virus was identified in Reston ...

Evolutionary tree

... whenever possible, but in many places it does not at present. The description as a "tree" results from earlier ideas of life as a progression from lower to higher forms. Although such views are discredited now, the imagery is too well established to be readily lost. The terminology originates with ...

Extinction

... off a species very rapidly, by killing all living members through contamination or sterilizing them. It can also occur over longer periods at lower toxicity levels by affecting life span, reproductive capacity, or competitiveness. DDT played such a role in killing off bald eagles and other ...

Fitness landscape

... Fitness landscapes are often conceived of as ranges of mountains. There exist local peaks (points from which all paths are downhill, i.e. to lower fitness) and valleys (regions from which most paths lead uphill). A fitness landscape with many local peaks surrounded by deep valleys is called ...

Heterozygote

... To describe how a trait inherits ( Main article: Mendelian inheritance ), the dominant trait is indicated with a capital and the recessive with a lower case character. The colour of Mendel's peas are often indicated as PP for the dominant homozygote pink flower and pp for the recessive ...

Homeostasis

... dimethyl sulfide , DMS. The DMS molecules act as cloud condensation nuclei which produce more clouds and thus increase the atmospheric albedo and lower the temperature of the atmosphere. Biological homeostasis Homeostasis is one of the fundamental characteristics of living things. It is the ...

Human

... In all Abrahamic religions , ( Judaism , Christianity , and Islam ), humans are lord, or steward, over the earth and all other creatures, a little lower than the angels (see Great Chain of Being ), and are alone in possessing a conscience. In Judaism and Christianity, humanity is seen as unique ...

Immune system

... fights pathogens using defenses that are quickly mobilized and triggered by receptors that recognize a broad spectrum of pathogens. Plants and many lower animals do not possess an adaptive immune system and instead rely on innate immunity. The study of the innate immune system has recently ....

Insulin

... When the glucose level comes down to the usual physiologic value, insulin release from the beta cells slows or stops. If blood glucose levels drop lower than this, especially to dangerously low levels, release of hyperglycemic hormones (most prominently glucagon from Islet alpha cells) forces release ...

Isozyme

... of an isozyme is glucokinase , a variant of hexokinase which is not inhibited by glucose 6-phosphate . Its different regulatory features and lower affinity for glucose (compared to other hexokinases), allows it to serve different functions in cells of specific organs, such as control of insulin ...

Kidney

... , the lining of the abdominal cavity . They are approximately at the vertebral level T12 to L3, and the right kidney usually lies slightly lower than the left in order to accommodate the liver . The upper parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs , and ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... the use of an "open bore" magnet which permits the operating staff better access to patients during the operation. Such open bore magnets are often lower field magnets, typically in the 0.2 tesla range, which decreases their sensitivity but also decreases the Radio Frequency power potentially ...

Nephron

... the less water reabsorbed. Dehydration results in an increase in ADH, while water sufficiency results in low ADH allowing for diluted urine. lower portions of the collecting duct are also permeable to urea , allowing some of it to enter the medulla of the kidney , thus maintaining its high ...

Nucleotide

... 3 See also 4 External links Nomenclature Nucleotide names are abbreviated into standard four-letter codes. The first letter is lower case and indicates whether the nucleotide in question is a ribonucleotide (r) or deoxyribonucleotide (d). The second letter indicates the ...

Nutrition

... 2001, Vol 86, Iss 11 Merritt JC "Metabolic syndrome: soybean foods and serum lipids."J Natl Med Assoc. 2004 Aug;96(8):1032-41. Sobczak S, et al lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in first-degree relatives of bipolar patients Psychol Med. ...

Origin of life

... be noted that the exact composition of the prebiotic atmosphere of earth is currently somewhat controversial. Other less reducing gases produce a lower yield and variety and the presence of free oxygen prevents any organomolecules from forming. The experiment showed that many of the basic organic ...

Osmoregulation

... is a solution with higher solute concentration (higher osmotic pressure) than another thus water wants to move in. Hypotonic is a solution with lower solute concentration (lower osmotic pressure) than another thus water wants to move out of it. Isotonic is solution with the same solute ...

Parthenogenesis

... "birth") means the growth and development of an embryo or seed without fertilization by a male . Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some lower plants (called agamospermy ), invertebrates (e.g. water fleas , aphids ) and some vertebrates (e.g. lizards , salamanders , some fish , ...

Passive transport

... Main article: Diffusion Diffusion is the net movement of material from an area of high concentration of that material to an area with lower concentration. The difference of concentration between the two areas is often termed as the concentration gradient , and diffusion will continue ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... not differ >5C and Tm of the amplification product should not differ from primers by >10C. Annealing temperature usually is -5C the calculated lower Tm. However it should be chosen empirically for individual conditions. Inner self-complementary hairpins of >4 and of dimers >8 should be ...
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