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Low in Biological Definition

Active transport

... of these species is allowed to flow from high to low concentration, which yields the entropic energy to drive the transport of the other solute from a low concentration region to a high one. An example is ... uses the flow of one solute species from high to low concentration to move another molecule against ...

Chromatography

... will elute under conditions of relatively low methanol. Whether one starts with high methanol or low methanol depends on the nature of the stationary ... polymer molecular weight distribution, but is low resolution . Affinity chromatography ...

Insulin

... Type 2 diabetes mellitus have either relatively low insulin production or insulin resistance , and ... and even death will result from sufficiently low blood glucose levels. Beta cells in the ... drop lower than this, especially to dangerously low levels, release of hyperglycemic hormones (most ...

Osmosis

... a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high ... real solutions approximate ideal behavior for low solute concentrations (At higher concentrations ... solute concentration with respect to that in the low solute concentration region. The force per ...

Thermoregulation

... and that when it has reached a sufficiently low point (about 25 C in the monkey), the employment ... allow their body extremities to cool to very low temperature. Compared to the core body temperature, their legs or nose are extremely low (nearly 0 C), so they have nothing to lose heat ...

Affinity chromatography

... to bind to the GST-fusion protein. Elution is achieved by the use of a low pH buffer such as glycine pH 2.8. The eluate is collected into tris buffer pH 8 as low pH will degrade the antibody. This is a nice example as affinity ...

Antibiotic

... the United States, a vast quantity of antibiotics is routinely included as low doses in the diet of healthy farm animals, as this practice has been ... locations, the rate of antibiotic resistance is so high that the normal, low cost antibiotics are virtually useless for treatment of frequently seen ...

Bone

... up a large portion of skeletal mass; but, because of its density, it has a low surface area. Cancellous bone is trabecular (honeycomb structure), it has ... is so called because its fibres are aligned at random, and as a result has low strength. In contrast lamellar bone has parallel fibres and is much ...

Dialysis

... of kidney failure. Removing this much fluid can cause or exacerbate low blood pressure. Monitoring is intended to detect this before it becomes too severe. low blood pressure can cause cramping, nausea, shakes, dizziness, ...

Electrophysiology

... interference from the tiny measured currents. Where experiments require low impedance measurements and no ionic contribution from the microelectrode, the chloride solution is replaced with cerralow, a low melting temperature alloy. The tip is electroplated with soft gold and ...

Glucose

... biochemical systems. Probably more important to advanced life is the low tendency of glucose, by comparison to other hexose sugars, to ... ( glycosylation ) reduces or destroys the function of many enzymes . The low rate of glycosylation is due to glucose's preference for the less reactive ...

Isozyme

... allele will be non-functional - in which case it will probably result in low fitness and be removed from the population by natural selection . ... (as of 2005 ) an excellent choice for projects that only need to identify low levels of genetic variation, e.g. quantifying mating systems . ...

Microscope

... microscope, there are three objective lenses: a scanning lens (4×), low power lens (10×), and high power lens (40×). Advanced ... for cell cultures in liquid; the student microscope designed for low cost, durability, and ease of use; and the research microscope which ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... anisotropic . For example a molecule inside the axon of a neuron has a low probability to cross a myelin membrane. Therefore the molecule will move ... that are due to changing neural activity. The brain is scanned at low resolution but at a rapid rate (typically once every 2-3 seconds). ...

Nutrition

... being sometimes caused by lifestyle issues, including poor nutrition and low levels of exercise. Despite this knowledge, the peak of the epidemic is ... has set researchers off on a line of study which presumes that it is not low food energy consumption which increases longevity. Instead, longevity may ...

Abiogenesis

... or by being placed in stoppered receptacles, putrefaction set in, and was invariably accompanied by the appearance of myriads of bacteria and other low organisms. As knowledge of microscopic forms of life increased, so the apparent possibilities of abiogenesis increased, and it became a tempting ...

Activation energy

... structural diagram below the graph.) The energy required to reach the transition state is equal to the activation energy of the reaction. At low temperatures for a particular reaction most, but not all, molecules will not have enough energy to react. However there will nearly always be a ...

Albinism

... span, intelligence , and ability to have children. The chance of albino children resulting from the marriage of an albino with a non-albino is very low and is discussed below. Visual problems associated with albinism People with albinism generally suffer impaired vision. They may have varying ...

Alcohol

... and science as reagents, solvents , and fuels . Ethanol and methanol can be made to burn more cleanly than gasoline or diesel . Because of its low toxicity and ability to dissolve non-polar substances, ethanol is often used as a solvent in medical drugs, perfumes , and vegetable essences such ...

Antibody

... the same time because they hinder each other. Because of its large molecule, it cannot diffuse well, so it is found in the interstitium only in very low quantities. IgM is primarly found in serum, however of the J chain it is also important as a secretory immunoglobulin. Due to its polymeric nature, ...

ATPase

... in a direction opposite to their thermodynamically preferred direction of movement—that is, from the side of the membrane where they are in low concentration to the side where they are in high concentration. This process is considered active transport . ATP synthetase The ATP ...

Biology

... flow of a population on the landscape, and the points A, B, and C are local optima. The red ball indicates a population that moves from a very low fitness value to the top of a peak Main articles: Evolutionary biology , Botany , Zoology Evolutionary biology is concerned with the ...

Biophysics

... life possible. Biophysics typically addresses biological questions similar to those in biology, but the questions are asked at a molecular (i.e. low Reynolds number ) level. By drawing knowledge and experimental techniques from a wide variety of disciplines (as described below), biophysicists ...

Cancer

... to divide. Tumor cells keep dividing forever. Altered morphology . Building of cellular clusters ( foci ). Loss of contact inhibition . low or no need for growth factors . Items 2-4 (above) can sometimes be traced to mutations in genes that result in a disruption of cell adhesion . ...

Chromosome

... XX or XY). In Turner syndrome, female sexual characteristics are present but underdeveloped. People with Turner syndrome often have a short stature, low hairline, abnormal eye features and bone development and a "caved-in" appearance to the chest. XYY syndrome Triple-X syndrome You can ...

Ion gradient

... unfavorable reaction can be driven by a thermodynamically favorable one, I.E by letting the ions diffuse through the high concentration side to the low concentration side through transmembrane proteins which can use them as energy. Several different types of ion gradients exists in biological ...

Culture

... elites to "popular" or pop culture , meaning goods and activities produced for, and consumed by, non-elite people or the masses . Both high and low cultures can be viewed as subcultures . Culture as worldview During the Romantic era , scholars in Germany , especially those concerned ...

Diabetes mellitus

... too much or poorly timed insulin or oral hypoglycemics or too much exercise, not enough food, or poor timing of either. If blood glucose levels are low enough, the patient may become agitated, sweaty, and have many symptoms of sympathetic activation of the autonomic nervous system - they may ...

Digestion

... to secrete pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid . Secretion of gastrin is stimulated by food arriving in stomach. The secretion is inhibited by low pH . Secretin - is in the duodenum and signals the secretion of sodium bicarbonate in the pancreas and it stimulates the bile secretion ...

Diffusion

... Reverse diffusion In general, diffusion results in transport down the gradient -- i.e. things move from regions of high concentration to low concentration. However, this is not always the case: during a phase separation, material can diffuse towards regions of higher concentration. This ...

Disulfide bond

... cells are exposed to oxidation reactions. Hydrogen peroxide ( H 2 O 2 ) in particular can severely damage DNA and kill the bacterium at low concentrations if it weren't for the protective action of the SS-bond. In rubber Disulfide bonds also play a significant role in the ...

Edward's syndrome

... information, its ability to grow and develop appropriately is delayed or confused. This results in characteristic physical abnormalities such as low birth weight ; a small, abnormally shaped head; small jaw; small mouth; low-set ears; and clenched fists with overlapping fingers. Those with ...

Ethyl alcohol

... 1986. Use Ethanol is used as a fuel and in a wide variety of industrial processes. Ethanol is also used in antifreeze products for its low melting point. It is easily soluble in water and is itself a good solvent , used in perfumes , paints and tinctures . Alcoholic drinks have a ...

Expressed sequence tag

... gene discovery and sequence determination. An EST is produced by one-shot sequencing of a cloned mRNA , and the resulting sequence is a relatively low quality fragment whose length is limited by current technology to approximately 500 to 800 nucleotides . ESTs are also a useful resource for ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... Fick's first law is also important in radiation transfer equations. However, in this context it becomes inaccurate when the diffusion constant is low and the radiation becomes limited by the speed of light rather than by the resistance of the material the radiation is flowing through. In this ...

Fitness landscape

... flow of a population on the landscape, and the points A, B, and C are local optima. The red ball indicates a population that moves from a very low fitness value to the top of a peak. Illustration by C.O. Wilke, 2001. Further reading Sewall Wright . "The roles of mutation, inbreeding, ...

Gene pool

... pool indicates a large genetic diversity , which is associated with robust populations that can survive bouts of intense selection . Meanwhile, low genetic diversity (see inbreeding and population bottlenecks ) can cause reduced fitness and an increased chance of extinction . When many ...

Gene therapy

... cells still in the body.) Recombination-based approaches in vivo are especially uncommon, because for most DNA constructs recombination is a very low probability event. Ex vivo The ex vivo approach was the first to be put in to practice. In 1990 trials were run designed to treat children ...

Hardy-Weinberg principle

... obtained using the HWP. For systems where there are large numbers of alleles, this may result in data with many empty possible genotypes and low genotype counts, because there are often not enough individuals present in the sample to adequately represent all genotype classes. If this is the ...

Hepatitis B

... from mother to child during childbirth, and so on. The primary method of transmission depends on the prevalence of the disease in a given area. In low prevalence areas, such as the continental United States, IV drug abuse and unprotected sex are the primary method. In moderate prevalence areas, the ...
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