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Limited in Biological Definition

Primary nutritional groups

... electron donors and acceptors for chemotrophs is limited to those whose reaction is exergonic enough to ... . However, some eucaryotic microorganisms are not limited to just one nutritional mode. For example, there ... are photoorganoheterotrophic. Some bacteria are limited to only one nutritional group, whereas others are ...

Antibiotic resistance

... While theoretically promising, anti-staphylococcal vaccines have shown limited efficacy, because of immunological variation between Staphylococcus species, and the limited duration of effectiveness of the antibodies produced. Development and ...

Extinction

... while at other times they may merely outcompete vulnerable species for limited resources. Vital resources including water and food can also be limited during habitat degradation, causing some species to become extinct. ...

Microscope

... up to 1000× and are used to study thin specimens as they have a very limited depth of field . Typically they are used to examine a smear, a squash ... oil, up to 1.5. Due to diffraction, even the best optical microscope is limited to a resolution of 0.2 micrometres . History of the microscope ...

Antibiotic resistance

... While theoretically promising, anti-staphylococcal vaccines have shown limited efficacy, because of immunological variation between Staphylococcus species, and the limited duration of effectiveness of the antibodies produced. Development and ...

Stem cell

... and can therefore be difficult to isolate and purify. There is also limited evidence that they may not have the same capacity to multiply as embryonic ... support research on human embryonic stem cells, but that funding would be limited to "existing (embryonic) stem cell lines where the life and death decision ...

Twin

... same day. A fetus alone in the womb is called a singleton . Due to the limited size of the mother's womb, multiple pregnancy is much less likely to ... often handled with special procedures than regular births. This article is limited to this usage of the term "twin". Contents ...

Albinism

... reading lights, but their vision cannot be corrected completely. Although surgery is possible on the ocular muscles, effectively simulating (to a limited degree) the improvements in the albino's vision that often come with age, the gain is generally thought be out-weighed by the trauma. The lack of ...

Anatomy

... anatomy may include the study of the structure of different animals, when it is called comparative anatomy or animal morphology , or it may be limited to one animal only, in which case it is spoken of as special anatomy . From a utilitarian point of view the study of humans is the most ...

AMP

... Systems, Inc. Winamp Zinf (formerly FreeAMP ) A brand of electrical and electronic connectors , part of Tyco Electronics. AMP limited is an Australian company providing insurance , investment and other financial services. ...

Avian influenza

... cases of avian influenza passed from birds to humans was H5N1 in 1997 in Hong Kong . 18 people were infected, of whom 6 died. The outbreak was limited to Hong Kong . All chickens in the territory were slaughtered. In January 2004 , a major new outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza surfaced in ...

Biodiversity

... biodiversity One definition of a biodiversity hotspot is a region with many endemic species. Hotspots tend to occur in areas of historically limited human impact and are generally very productive. As a result of the pressures of the growing human population, human activity in many of these areas ...

Cancer

... type of mutation and may involve oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. In general, mutations in both types of genes are necessary, as a mutation limited to an oncogene would be suppressed by normal mitosis control. Mutations can have various causes. Particular causes have been linked to specific ...

Charles Darwin

... Charles fell ill. For the rest of his life he suffered episodes of stomach pains, vomiting, severe boils and other symptoms which frequently limited his working time to a few minutes a day or forced him to stop working and recuperate. First writings on theory Darwin made attempts to ...

Competitive exclusion principle

... seems to be violated. The best known example is the paradox of the plankton (or short plankton paradox ): All plankton species live on a very limited number of resources, primarily solar energy and minerals that are dissolved in the water. According to the competitive exclusion principle, only a ...

Computed axial tomography

... iodinated contrast than barium due to the tendency of barium to cause imaging artifacts that limit evaluation of abdominal structures). CT has limited application in the evaluation of the pelvis . For the female pelvis in particular, ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice. ...

Enzyme

... K M for a given substrate. Since V max cannot be measured directly, both K M and V max are usually determined by extrapolating from a limited data set, using what is known as a double reciprocal, or Lineweaver-Burk plot. The efficiency of an enzyme can be expressed in terms of k cat / ...

Eugenics

... , Norway , Finland , Estonia , Switzerland and Iceland for people the government declared to be mentally deficient. Singapore practiced a limited form of "positive" eugenics which involved encouraging marriage between college graduates in the hope that they would produce better children. ...

Expressed sequence tag

... An EST is produced by one-shot sequencing of a cloned mRNA , and the resulting sequence is a relatively low quality fragment whose length is limited by current technology to approximately 500 to 800 nucleotides . ESTs are also a useful resource for designing probes for DNA microarrays used to ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... in radiation transfer equations. However, in this context it becomes inaccurate when the diffusion constant is low and the radiation becomes limited by the speed of light rather than by the resistance of the material the radiation is flowing through. In this situation, one can use a flux limiter ....

Growth curve

... growth Some growth curves for certain biological systems display periods of exponential growth . Typically, periods of exponential growth are of limited duration due to depletion of some rate-limiting resource. ...

Human

... of population. Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environments ( Antarctica , outer space ) is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Life in space has been very sporadic, with a maximum of thirteen ...

Lung

... Reptilian lungs Amphibian lungs The lungs of most frogs and other amphibians are simple balloon-like structures, with gas exchange limited to the outer surface area of the lung. This is not a very efficient arrangement, but amphibians have low metabolic demands and also frequently ...

Memory

... memory retention from milliseconds to seconds and short-term memory from seconds to minutes. These stores are generally characterised as of strictly limited capacity and duration, whereas in general stored information can be retrieved in a period of time which ranges from days to years; this type of ...

Nutrition

... disease. Other examples of adverse effects of food processing, together with research findings and the need to be cautious in the light of our limited and incomplete knowledge, have called food processing into question. Today's leading nutritionists advise against the processing of food where ...

Olfaction

... attractive. Smell is extremely important for taste. The human tongue can only sense 4 different things (some studies say 5, 6 even 7, but still a limited number), while the nose can sense many thousands. This is the reason why you can taste very little when you have a blocked nose. Olfaction in ...

Origin of life

... research on the origin of life. For alternate uses, see origin of life (disambiguation) . Research into the origin of life is a limited field of research despite its profound impact on biology and human understanding of the natural world. Progress in this field is generally slow ...

Paternity testing

... genome can only prove if two individuals are related by common descent through maternal lines only from a common ancestor and is thus of limited value (for instance, it could not be used to test for paternity). Obtaining news that a child either is or isn't one's own is someting that a ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... would anneal at several positions on a long DNA template, which would result in non-specific copies. On the other hand, the length of a primer is limited by the temperature required to melt it. Melting temperatures that are too high, i.e., above 80C, can also cause problems since the DNA-Polymerase is ...

Phosphorylation

... transcription of gene that suppress the cell cycle , even to the extent that it undergoes apoptosis . However, this activity should be limited to situations where the cell is damaged or physiology is disturbed. To this end, the p53 protein is extensively regulated. In fact, p53 contains ...

Photon

... is infinite, although they can be created and destroyed. Photons are commonly associated with visible light , which is actually only a very limited part of the electromagnetic spectrum . Photons have zero invariant mass but a definite finite energy. Because they have energy, the theory of ...

Primer

... would anneal at several positions on a long DNA template, which would result in non-specific copies. On the other hand, the length of a primer is limited by the temperature required to melt it. Melting temperatures that are too high, i.e., above 80C, can also cause problems since the DNA-Polymerase is ...

Proprioception

... these issues. People who have a limb amputated may still have a sense of that limb; this is termed a phantom limb . This phenomenon is not limited to one sensation, however. Phantom sensations can occur that are perceived as movement, pressure, pain, itching, or hot/cold as well. (Note: The ...

Proteome

... has at least two levels of complexity lacking in the genome. When the genome is defined by the sequence of nucleotides , the proteome cannot be limited to the sum of the sequences of the proteins present. Knowledge of the proteome requires knowledge of (1) the structure of the proteins in the ...

Robert Koch

... in 1866. He then served in the Franco-Prussian War and later became district medical officer in Wollstein ( Wolsztyn ). Working with very limited resources, he became one of the founders of bacteriology , the other being Louis Pasteur . After Casimir Davaine showed the direct transmission ...

Substrate

... material that images will be printed onto. Depending on the printing process and end use of the product, these materials include (though are not limited to) films, foils, textiles, fabrics, plastics, and any variety of paper (lightweight, heavyweight, coated, uncoated, paperboard, cardboard, etc.). ...

T cell

... are specific and that are binded in a complex with the MHC molecule of the type they were presented with in the thymic cortex. They are said to be limited with type I or type II MHC molecules . The cells that survive positive selection move towards the thymic medulla where at the boundary between ...

Thermoregulation

... not insulated well, high temperature in feet and hooves is hard to maintain. Hibernation estivation and daily torpor Rather than cope with limited food resources and low temperatures, some mammals "punt" in a sense by hibernating in underground burrows; in order to remain in "stasis" for long ...

Virus

... which can reproduce independently of their host. Like most parasites, they have a specific host range, sometimes specific to one species (or even limited cell types of one species) and sometimes more general. Viruses form when molecules are assembled from organic compounds providing complex, ...
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