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Ion in Biological Definition

Active transport

... In counter-transport two species of ion or other solute are pumped in opposite directions ... rapid recovery. This shows that a single type of ion can be transported by several enzymes, which need ... it imports into the cell. See also ion channel ...

Chromatography

... (TLC) 5 Gas-liquid chromatography 6 ion exchange chromatography 7 Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography 8 High performance ... poor for thermally labile molecules. ion exchange chromatography ...

Ion gradient

... An ion gradient is a concentration gradient of ions ... across membranes. Ionophores are important for ion gradients. The chemiosmotic potential is used ... use them as energy. Several different types of ion gradients exists in biological systems, the most ...

Electrophysiology

... obviously of value in the study of voltage-gated ion channels , but also aids in characterizing ... currents in which the activity of many ion channels is occurring at the same time. However ... to measure the current flowing through a single ion channel and study its behavior. There are ...

Ion channel

... ion channels are present in the membranes that ... 6 External links Basic features An ion channel is an integral membrane protein or more ... bees, sea snails and others) work by plugging ion channel pores. ...

Neurotransmitter

... synapse, the rapid depolarization causes calcium ion channels to open. Calcium then stimulates the ... receptors. Ionotropic receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that open or close through neurotransmitter binding. Metabotropic receptor effects on ion channels are carried by second messenger ...

Signal transduction

... transduction of transmembrane receptors that are ion channels 3.1.4 Signal transduction of ... proteins in the membrane and open their ion channels . Responses Responses triggered ... AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), calcium ion , phophoinositide derivatives, such as ...

Synapse

... through voltage-dependent, calcium-selective ion channels , at which point the vesicles fuse with ... molecules and respond by opening nearby ion channels in the post-synaptic cell membrane, ... or inhibitory depends on what type(s) of ion channel conduct the post-synaptic current, which ...

Amine

... nitrogen atom has a lone electron pair available which can accept a H + ion to bond to the nitrogen forming a positive substituted ammonium ion. The ... be formed along with a negative halide ion. These sort of paired ion compounds are called quaternary ammonium salts . The X shown in the ...

Dendrite

... without action potentials and without activation of voltage-gated ion channels . In such dendrites the voltage change that results from ... action potential is mediated by the activation of voltage-gated ion channels and can interact with synaptic input to alter the synaptic ...

Kidney

... Homeostatic function of the kidney The kidney regulates the pH, mineral ion concentration and water composition of the blood. By exchanging ... in a homeostatic process involving aldosterone which increases sodium ion absorption in the convoluted tubule. Any rise or drop in blood osmotic ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... the cell. Also, the hydrolysis yields free inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate , which can be broken down further to another phosphate ion and adenosine monophosphate . ATP can also be broken down to adenosine monophosphate directly, with the formation of pyrophosphate . This last ...

Alcohol

... upon oxidation, while secondary alcohols give ketones . Tertiary alcohols resist oxidation. Traditionally strong oxidants such as dichromate ion or potassium permanganate are used, under acidic conditions, for example: 3 CH 3 -CH(-OH)-CH 3 + K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + 4 H 2 SO 4 → ...

Andrew Huxley

... the prize that year with John Carew Eccles , who was cited for research on synapses . Hodgkin and Huxley's findings led the pair to hypothesize ion channels , which were confirmed only decades later. The experimental measurements on which the pair based their action potential theory represent ...

ATPase

... a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate ion . This dephosphorylation reaction releases energy , which the enzyme (in most cases) harnesses to drive other chemical reactions that would not ...

Diffusion

... Ions Diffusion of ions depends on the concentration gradient, and the membrane potential. The net flux of ions can be altered by opening or closing ion channels. Diffusion in chemical engineering Diffusion is the movement of matter due to the movement of the individual molecules (or atoms). ...

Facilitated diffusion

... protein involved is intrinsic, that is, it completely spans the membrane. It also has a binding site for the specific molecule (e.g., glucose ) or ion to be transported. After binding the molecule, the protein changes shape and carries the molecule across the membrane, where it is released. The ...

Fehling's solution

... copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate 350 grams Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate) and 100 grams sodium hydroxide The cupric ion is complexed with the tartrate ion. Contact with an aldehyde group reduces it to a cuprous ion, which then precipitates as red Cu 2 O ( copper(I) ...

Flagellum

... ) across the bacterial cell membrane due to a concentration gradient set up by the cell's metabolism (in Vibrio species the motor is a sodium ion pump, rather than a proton pump ). The rotor transports protons across the membrane, and is turned in the process. The rotor by itself can operate ...

Gradient

... See also Jacobian Divergence Curl Partial derivation Vector calculus Nabla in cylindrical and spherical coordinates ion gradient Gradient descent Level set ...

Hydrolysis

... other contains a carboxylic acid functional group. The fragment of the parent molecule that was originally a carboxylate gains a hydrogen ion from the additional water molecule. The fragment that was originally an alkyl group collects the remaining hydroxyl group from the water ...

Lung

... purpose. Nonrespiratory functions of the lungs In addition to respiratory functions such as gas exchange and regulation of hydrogen ion concentration , the lungs also: influence on the concentration of biologically active substances and drugs used in medicine in arterial blood ...

Microscope

... microscope. Other types of microscopes See also microscopy Atom probe Atomic force microscope Electron microscope Field ion microscope Field emission microscope Phase contrast microscope , see Frits Zernike Scanning tunneling microscope Virtual microscope ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... in various organisms as well. MH 2 + NAD + → NADH + H + + M: + energy, where M is a metabolite. Two hydrogen ions (a hydride ion and an H + ion) are transferred from the metabolite. Two electrons are transferred to the positively charged nitrogen, and one hydrogen attaches to ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... in various organisms as well. MH 2 + NAD + → NADH + H + + M: + energy, where M is a metabolite. Two hydrogen ions (a hydride ion and an H + ion) are transferred from the metabolite. Two electrons are transferred to the positively charged nitrogen, and one hydrogen attaches to ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... in various organisms as well. MH 2 + NAD + → NADH + H + + M: + energy, where M is a metabolite. Two hydrogen ions (a hydride ion and an H + ion) are transferred from the metabolite. Two electrons are transferred to the positively charged nitrogen, and one hydrogen attaches to ...

Nephron

... portions of the collecting duct are also permeable to urea , allowing some of it to enter the medulla of the kidney , thus maintaining its high ion concentration (which is very important for the nephron). See also physiology urology nephrology ...

Peripheral membrane protein

... binding to integral membrane proteins , or by interactions with the lipid polar head. Therefore the so-called regulatory protein subunits of many ion channels and transmembrane receptors , for example, may be defined as peripheral membrane proteins. These proteins, in contrast to integral ...

Protein

... proteins. (Certain RNA sequences were shown in the late 20th century to have catalytic properties as well.) Membrane-associated exchangers and ion channels , which move their substrates from place to place but do not change them; receptors , which do not modify their substrates but may simply ...

Quaternary structure

... and the core is often called the catalytic subunit . Examples of proteins with quaternary structure include hemoglobin , DNA polymerase , and ion channels . Other assemblies referred to instead as multiprotein complexes also possess quaternary structure. Examples include nucleosomes and ...

Transmembrane receptor

... In certain receptors, such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor , the transmembrane domain forms a protein-lined pore through the membrane, or ion channel . Upon activation of an extracellular domain by binding of the appropriate ligand, the pore becomes accessible to ions, which then pass ...
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