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Intracellular in Biological Definition

Signal transduction

... Types of signals 2.1 Extracellular 2.2 intracellular 2.3 Intercellular 2.4 Hormones 3 ... at the transmembrane hormone receptor 5 intracellular signal transduction 5.1 Ca2+ as a second ... for oily surroundings (see hydrophobic ). intracellular Often, but not always, ...

Transmembrane receptor

... domain 2 The transmembrane domain 3 The intracellular domain 4 Regulation of receptor activity ... been determined by crystallography). The intracellular domain The intracellular (or cytoplasmic ) domain of the receptor ...

Electrophysiology

... are four main types of cellular electrophysiological recordings: 1. intracellular recording. This technique entails impaling a cell, usually a neuron , ... is possible to obtain large, whole cell currents without washing out the intracellular medium. Disadvantages: Impossible to record from single channels. ....

Virus

... that infects cells in biological organisms. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites ; they can only reproduce by invading and taking over other ... of the host to reproduce. For this reason, viruses are called obligate intracellular parasites . Before a virus has entered a host cell, it is called a ...

Active transport

... which allows three sodium ions into the cell to transport one calcium out. Many cells also posses a calcium ATPase, which can operate at lower intracellular concentrations of calcium and sets the normal or resting concentration of this important second messenger . But the ATPase exports calcium ions more ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... see ATP (disambiguation) Adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the " molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells . ATP also plays an important role in the synthesis of ...

Antibiotic

... for compounds to attack a fungal cell which will not harm a human cell. Similarly, we know now that viruses represent an incredibly minimal intracellular parasite, being stripped down to a few genes worth of DNA or RNA and the minimal molecular equipment needed to enter a cell and actually take ...

Antigen

... Endogenous antigens are antigens that have been generated within the cell, as a result of normal cell metabolism , or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection . The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex with class I histocompatibility molecules . If cytotoxic ...

Axon

... axon collaterals , along which the bifurcated impulse travels simultaneously to signal more than one other cell. History Some of the first intracellular recordings in a nervous system were made in the late 1930's by K. Cole and H. Curtis. Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley also employed the squid axon ...

Biology

... -- Eukaryota These domains reflect whether cells have nuclei or not as well as differences in cell exteriors. There is also a series of intracellular " parasites " that are progressively less alive in terms of being metabolically active: Viruses -- Viroids -- Prions Continuity: ...

Cell biology

... Other proteins "flow" through the ER and Golgi to the plasma membrane. From the plasma membrane, proteins destined to be degraded move back into intracellular compartments where they are broken down to their individual amino acids . Techniques Purification of cells and their parts ...

Cytoskeleton

... tubulin . They have a very dynamic behaviour, binding GTP for polymerization, they are organized by the centrosome . They play key roles in: intracellular transport (asociated with dyneins and kinesins they transport organelles like mitochondria or vesicles .) the axoneme of cilia and ...

Cytosol

... cell metabolism occurs here. Proteins within the cytosol play an important role in signal transduction pathways, glycolysis , and they act as intracellular receptors and ribosomes . In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol. In eukaryotes , the cytosol contains the cell ...

Morphogenesis

... genes. Proteins such as Bicoid can be described as morphogens that act within the syncytial blastoderm of the early Drosophila embryo. These intracellular morphogens enter the nuclei and act as transcription factors to control expression of the gap genes. In the blastoderm stage of Drosophila ...

Homeostasis

... environment of a living organism's body features body fluids in multicellular animals. The body fluids include blood plasma , tissue fluid and intracellular fluid . The maintenance of a steady state in these fluids is essential to living things as the lack of it harms the genetic material. With regard ...

Morphogenesis

... genes. Proteins such as Bicoid can be described as morphogens that act within the syncytial blastoderm of the early Drosophila embryo. These intracellular morphogens enter the nuclei and act as transcription factors to control expression of the gap genes. In the blastoderm stage of Drosophila ...

Osmoregulation

... Osmoregulation in protoctists and animals Amoeba makes us of a contractile vacuole to collect excretory waste, such as ammonia , from the intracellular fluid by both diffusion and active transport. As osmotic action pushes water from the environment into the cytoplasm, the vacuole moves to the ...

Prion

... have unravelled how the proteins that code for [PSI+] and [URE3] can convert between prion and non-prion forms, as well as the consequences of having intracellular prions. In certain situations, cells infected with [PSI+] actually fare better than their prion-free siblings; this finding suggests that, in some ...

Second messenger

... the cytosol . gases, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), that can diffuse both through cytosol and across cellular membranes. These intracellular messengers have some properties in common: They can be synthesized/released and broken down again in specific reactions by enzymes. Some ...

Symbiosis

... of the host, including the inner surface of the digestive tract or the ducts of exocrine glands. In endosymbiosis, the symbiont lives in the intracellular space of the host. An example of mutual symbiosis is the relationship between clownfish of the genus Amphiprion (family, Pomacentridae ) that ...
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