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Interactions in Biological Definition

Biology

... and individuals come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with their ... 2.3.1 Classification of life 2.4 interactions of organisms 3 History of the word ... is that there are so many different possible interactions with other organisms and the environment. A ...

Molecular biology

... chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including ... RNA and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated. Writing in Nature , W.T. ... " wild type " or normal phenotype . Genetic interactions such as epistasis can often confound simple ...

Proteomics

... is constantly changing through its biochemical interactions with the genome and the environment. One ... human proteins and ascertain their functions and interactions presents a daunting challenge for scientists. An ... . This concerns the investigation of protein interactions on the atomic, molecular and cellular levels ...

Biodiversity

... . For ecologists , biodiversity is also the diversity of durable interactions among species. It not only applies to species, but also to their ... and must be supplemented by a greater comprehension of the functions, interactions and communities. Moreover, exchanges of genes occurring between the ...

Biophysics

... these techniques, biologists attempt to elucidate the complex systems of interactions that give rise to the processes that make life possible. Biophysics ... biophysicists are able to indirectly observe or model the structures and interactions of individual molecules or complexes of molecules. In addition things ...

Chromatography

... paper chromatography In paper chromatography, chemical interactions with the paper make compounds travel at different rates. A small spot ... the paper. This means that the sample will contact the paper and may form interactions with it. Any substance that will react with (and thus bond to) the paper ...

Enzyme

... been identified. Individual monomers may then combine via non-covalent interactions to form a multimeric protein. The final enzyme molecule might also be ... Madumarov, Z.D. Urushadze, Yu.I. Kharkats. Electronic and Conformational interactions in Enzyme Catalysis.- In: E.L. Andronikashvili (Ed.), Konformatsionnie ...

Bioinformatics

... include sequence alignment , protein structure alignment , protein structure prediction , prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions , and the modeling of evolution . The terms bioinformatics and computational biology are often used interchangeably, although the former is, ...

Genetic code

... Following are references cited in the text of the article. Knight, R.D. and Landweber, L.F. (1998). Rhyme or reason: RNA-arginine interactions and the genetic code. Chemistry & Biology 5 (9), R215-R220. PDF version of manuscript Note 2 : Brooks, Dawn J.; Fresco, Jacques ...

Bioinformatics

... include sequence alignment , protein structure alignment , protein structure prediction , prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions , and the modeling of evolution . The terms bioinformatics and computational biology are often used interchangeably, although the former is, ...

Disulfide bond

... prokaryotes Oxidative protein folding in eukaryotes : mechanisms and consequences The human protein disulphide isomerase family: substrate interactions and functional properties ...

Morphogenesis

... Wingless morphogen The expression patterns of the final class of segmentation genes, the segment polarity genes , are then fine-tuned by interactions between the cells of adjacent parasegments (see the example, engrailed , to the right). The Engrailed protein is a transcription factor (yellow in ...

Endosymbiont

... A review article on aphids and their bacterial endosymbionts. A. E. Douglas (1998), Nutritional interactions in insect-microbial symbioses: Aphids and Their Symbiotic Bacteria Buchnera , Annual Reviews of Entomology , 43, pp. 17-37. Describes possible ...

Endosymbiont

... A review article on aphids and their bacterial endosymbionts. A. E. Douglas (1998), Nutritional interactions in insect-microbial symbioses: Aphids and Their Symbiotic Bacteria Buchnera , Annual Reviews of Entomology , 43, pp. 17-37. Describes possible ...

Entomology

... Entomology is the scientific study of insects . Insects have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth, so it is an important specialty within biology ; unlike many other fields however, entomologists ...

Epigenetics

... is sometimes credited with coining the term epigenetics in 1942, when he defined it as “the branch of biology which studies the causal interactions between genes and their products which bring the phenotype into being”. However the term goes back at least to 1896 (see References). ...

Genetic code

... Following are references cited in the text of the article. Knight, R.D. and Landweber, L.F. (1998). Rhyme or reason: RNA-arginine interactions and the genetic code. Chemistry & Biology 5 (9), R215-R220. PDF version of manuscript Note 2 : Brooks, Dawn J.; Fresco, Jacques ...

Genetics

... animals. In modern research, genetics provides important tools in the investigation of the function of a particular gene, e.g. analysis of genetic interactions . Within organisms , genetic information generally is carried in chromosomes , where it is represented in the chemical structure of particular ...

Human Genome Project

... its function(s), its evolutionary relationships to other human genes, or to genes in mice or yeast or fruitflies, possible detrimental mutations, interactions with other genes, body tissues in which this gene is activated, diseases associated with this ... the list of datatypes is long, one reason why ...

Mathematical biology

... [12] These examples are characterised by complex , nonlinear mechanisms and it is being increasingly recognised that the result of such interactions may only be understood through mathematical and computational models. Due to the wide diversity of specific knowledge involved, biomathematical ...

Microbiology

... two-hybrid system combines bacterial genes with genes from the organism being studied and inserts them into yeast cells to study protein-protein interactions within a cellular environment. See also Archaea Bacterium Biochemistry Eukaryote Genetics Geomicrobiology ...

Morphogenesis

... Wingless morphogen The expression patterns of the final class of segmentation genes, the segment polarity genes , are then fine-tuned by interactions between the cells of adjacent parasegments (see the example, engrailed , to the right). The Engrailed protein is a transcription factor (yellow in ...

Muscle

... react to reflexive nerve stimuli that do not always send signals all the way to the brain, but most muscle activity is the result of complex interactions between various areas of the brain. Nerves that control skeletal muscles in mammals correspond with neuron groups along the primary motor area ...

Osmosis

... concentration in terms of mole fraction . Most real solutions approximate ideal behavior for low solute concentrations (At higher concentrations interactions between solute and solvent cause deviations from Equation 1). This reduced potential creates a driving force and it is this force which drives ...

Peripheral membrane protein

... molecules do not span the lipid bilayer core of the membrane, but attach indirectly, typically by binding to integral membrane proteins , or by interactions with the lipid polar head. Therefore the so-called regulatory protein subunits of many ion channels and transmembrane receptors , for example, may ...

Phage

... led Western medical researchers to re-evaluate phages as alternatives to the use of antibiotics. Phage display is a test to screen for protein interactions by integrating multiple genes from a gene bank into phages. Model bacteriophages Following is a list of bacteriophages that are extensively ...

Primer

... than 13 nucleotides. Base-stacking calculation : Most accurate, but complicated where Δ H is the enthalpy of base stacking interactions adjusted for helix initiation factors Δ S is the entropy of base stacking adjusted for helix initiation factors and for the ...

Protein

... of translation . The secondary structures are held together by hydrogen bonds . The tertiary structure is held together primarily by hydrophobic interactions but hydrogen bonds , ionic interactions, and disulfide bonds are usually involved too. The process by which the higher structures form is ...

Signal transduction

... A direct recognition of Ca 2+ by the protein. Binding of Ca 2+ in the active center of an enzyme One of the best studied interactions of Ca 2+ with a protein is the regulation of calmodulin by Ca 2+ . Calmodulin itself can regulate other proteins, or be part of a larger ...

Symbiosis

... own or different species often outcompete those that don't. However, mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism are often not discrete categories of interactions and should rather be perceived as a continuum of interaction ranging from parasitism to mutualism. In fact, the direction of a symbiotic interaction ...

Systems biology

... field that seeks to integrate biological data as an attempt to understand how biological systems function. By studying the relationships and interactions between various parts of a biological system (e.g. organelles , cells , physiological systems , organisms etc.) it is hoped that eventually an ...
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