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Inner in Biological Definition

Electron transfer chain

... , including humans, an ETC is found spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane and accepts electrons ... from within the mitochondrial matrix across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the intermembrane ... is a soluble protein loosely associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane, and transfers electrons ...

Mitochondrion

... Cross-section of a mitochondrion, showing: (1) inner membrane, (2) outer membrane, (3) cristae, (4) ... the outer mitochondrial membrane and the inner mitochondrial membrane . The outer mitochondrial ... the organelle, serving as its outer boundary. The inner mitochondrial membrane is thrown into folds, or ...

Mitochondrion

... Cross-section of a mitochondrion, showing: (1) inner membrane, (2) outer membrane, (3) cristae, (4) ... the outer mitochondrial membrane and the inner mitochondrial membrane . The outer mitochondrial ... the organelle, serving as its outer boundary. The inner mitochondrial membrane is thrown into folds, or ...

Proprioception

... of equilibrium or balance from kinethesia. An inner ear infection, for example, might impact the ... from sensory neurons located in the inner ear (motion and orientation) and in the joints ... sight (watching her feet) and vestibulum (or inner ear ) only. She eventually acquired a stiff and ...

Stem cell

... stem cells are cultured cells obtained from the inner mass cells of a blastocyst . Embryonic stem cell ... fat-cells. These were found in the dermis , the inner layer of the skin. These stem cells play a ... stem cells Stem cells which derived from the inner mass cells of a blastocyst (an early embryo ) ...

ATP synthase

... Vol 22, p 63). These are particles of 9 nm diameter that pepper the inner mitochondrial membrane. They were originally called elementary particles ... process takes place in mitochondria , were ATP synthase is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane (so that F 1 -part sticks into mitochondrial ...

Cartilage

... of cartilage. There are two distinct layers, an outer fibrous layer and inner chondrogenic layer. The fibrous layer contains fibroblasts which can produce collagen fibers while the inner layer contains undifferentiated or osteogenic cells capable of forming ...

Chloroplast

... metabolism; and both have reticulations, or many foldings, filling their inner spaces. Chloroplasts convert light energy from the sun into ATP through ... two lipid bilayer membranes , now thought to correspond to the outer and inner membranes of the ancestral cyanobacterium. The genome is considerably ...

Chloroplast membrane

... The outer membrane is permiable to most ions and metabolites , but the inner membrane is highly specialised with transport proteins . Within the inner membrane, in the region called the stroma , there is a system of ...

Homunculus

... human mind is known by its intelligent acts. He argued that if there is an inner being inside the brain that could steer its own thoughts then this would ... of a process of considering this criterion." Ryle is proposing that if inner reflection were a process then it would be an endless activity if it ...

Lung

... of the rib cage and enclosed by a double-walled sac called pleura . The inner layer of the sac adheres tightly to the outside of the lungs and the outer ... the pleural cavity that is filled with pleural fluid ; this allows the inner and outer layers to slide over each other, and prevents them from being ...

Rudolf Steiner

... Steiner claimed that if one practiced various systematic forms of inner discipline, it would be possible to create an increasingly objective, ... (1894) How to Know Higher Worlds (1904-5) Anthroposophy and the inner Life (1924) Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception ...

Apoptosis

... for safe disposal The dying cells that have just been described display "eat me" signals, like phosphatidylserine (PS, a phospholipid from the inner cell-membrane). Phagocytic scavengers, such as macrophages, have specialized receptors that recognize PS and carry out their disposal job in an ...

Biomechanics

... See also 9 References Applications Biomechanisms include all higher-class forms of life. The study of biomechanics ranges from the inner workings of a cell to the movement and development of limbs , the vasculature , and bones . An understanding of the physiological behavior of ...

Cell nucleus

... the largest organelle , varies in diameter from 10 to 20 micrometres . It is enclosed by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope . The inner and outer membrane fuse at regular intervals, forming nuclear pores . The nuclear envelope regulates and facilitates transport between the nucleus ...

Cladistics

... A vertical orientation yields a cladogram reminiscent of a tree . In a cladogram, all organisms lie at the leaves, and each inner node is ideally binary (two-way). The two taxa on either side of a split are called sister taxa or sister groups . Each subtree, whether it only ...

Ion gradient

... energy in this fashion is termed oxidative phosphorylation . Same process takes place in mitochondria , were ATP synthase is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane (so that F 1 -part sticks into mitochondrial matrix, were ATP synthesis takes place). See also Transmembrane ...

Crista

... Cristae are the infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion . They are studded with proteins, including ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes , and function in cellular ...

Endosymbiont

... An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i.e. forming an endosymbiosis ( Greek : endo = inner and biosis = living). For instance, some nitrogen fixing bacteria (e.g. in Rhizobium , Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium ) live in ...

Endosymbiont

... An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i.e. forming an endosymbiosis ( Greek : endo = inner and biosis = living). For instance, some nitrogen fixing bacteria (e.g. in Rhizobium , Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium ) live in ...

Eukaryote

... Mitochondria and plastids Mitochondria are organelles found in nearly all eukaryotes. They are surrounded by double membranes, the inner of which is folded into invaginations called cristae, where aerobic respiration takes place. They contain their own DNA and are only formed by the ...

Flagellum

... with a capping protein. The bacterial flagellum is driven by a rotary engine composed of protein , located at the flagellum's anchor point on the inner cell membrane . The engine is powered by proton motive force , i.e., by the flow of protons (i.e., hydrogen ions ) across the bacterial cell ...

HACEK organism

... of a set of slow-growing Gram negative bacteria that form a normal part of the human flora . They are a frequent cause of inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, ( endocarditis ) in children . The name is formed from their initials: H aemophilus aphrophilus and Haemophilus ...

Human

... to rise during the 21st century. Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution , crime , and poverty , especially in inner city and suburban slums. Geneticists Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending of the University of Utah have concluded that the variation in the total ...

Intermembrane space

... The intermembrane space is the region between the inner membrane and the outer membrane of a mitochondrion or a chloroplast . Its main function is nucleotide phosphorylation . Channel proteins called ...

Nuclear lamina

... A nuclear lamina is a dense, fibrillar meshwork composed of intermediate filaments that lines the inner surface of the nuclear envelope . ...

Osmoregulation

... as needle-shaped leaves, sunken stomata and thick, waxy cuticles as in the pine. The sand-dune marran grass has rolled leaves with stomata on the inner surface. Osmoregulation in protoctists and animals Amoeba makes us of a contractile vacuole to collect excretory waste, such as ammonia , ...

Oxidative phosphorylation

... acid cycle . The process takes place at a biological membrane . In prokaryotes this is the plasma membrane , and in eukaryotes it is the inner of the two mitochondrial membranes . NADH and FADH 2 , electron carrier molecules that were "loaded" during the citric acid cycle, are used ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... by >10C. Annealing temperature usually is -5C the calculated lower Tm. However it should be chosen empirically for individual conditions. inner self-complementary hairpins of >4 and of dimers >8 should be avoided. 3' terminus is extremely case sensitive - it must not be complementary to ...

Proton-motive force

... of energy as a combination of a proton and voltage gradient across a plasma membrane . In eukaryotes the Proton-motive force exists across the inner mithochondrial membrane. It is generated by energy from the citric acid cycle and is utilized in the synthesis of ATP via ATP Synthase . In ...

Symbiosis

... two distinct categories: ectosymbiosis and endosymbiosis . In ectosymbiosis, the symbiont lives on the body surface of the host, including the inner surface of the digestive tract or the ducts of exocrine glands. In endosymbiosis, the symbiont lives in the intracellular space of the host. An ...

Tobacco mosaic virus

... protein that assembles itself around the viral RNA in a helical structure (16.3 proteins per helix turn). The virions have a diameter ~18nm and an inner hole ~2nm. The protein coat consists of 158 aminoacids which are assembled into four main alpha-helices, which are joined by a prominent loop ...

Tobacco mosaic virus

... protein that assembles itself around the viral RNA in a helical structure (16.3 proteins per helix turn). The virions have a diameter ~18nm and an inner hole ~2nm. The protein coat consists of 158 aminoacids which are assembled into four main alpha-helices, which are joined by a prominent loop ...

Vestibular system

... dominant input about our movement and orientation in space. Together with the cochlea, the auditory organ, it is situated in the vestibulum in the inner ear (Figure 1). As our movements consist of rotations and translations, the vestibular system comprises two components: the semicircular canals , ...
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