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Initiation in Biological Definition

Genetic code

... AUG both codes for methionine and serves as an initiation site: the first AUG in an mRNA 's coding region ... first detected. Translation starts with a chain initiation codon (start codon). But unlike stop codons, these are not sufficient to begin the process; nearby initiation sequences are also required to induce ...

Genetic code

... AUG both codes for methionine and serves as an initiation site: the first AUG in an mRNA 's coding region ... first detected. Translation starts with a chain initiation codon (start codon). But unlike stop codons, these are not sufficient to begin the process; nearby initiation sequences are also required to induce ...

Primer

... H is the enthalpy of base stacking interactions adjusted for helix initiation factors Δ S is the entropy of base stacking adjusted for helix initiation factors and for the contributions of salts to the entropy R is the ...

Apoptosis

... tissue or from a cell that is part of the immune system . If a cell's capability of apoptosis is damaged (for example, by mutation ), or if the initiation of apoptosis is blocked (by a virus), a damaged cell can continue dividing without restrictions, developing into cancer . For example, as part of ...

Archaea

... - do not show the typical bacterial features, but are extremely similar to those of eukaryotes . For instance, archaean translation uses eukaryotic initiation and elongation factors, and their transcription involves TATA-binding proteins and TFIIB as in eukaryotes. Several other characteristics also set ...

DNA

... one original and one newly synthesized strand. This is called semiconservative replication . The process of replication consists of three steps: initiation , replication and termination . Mechanical properties relevant to biology Strands association and dissociation The hydrogen bonds ...

Enhancer

... sequence and the other with its promoter . An abstract can be found here .) An enhancer does not need to bind close to the transcription initiation site to affect its transcription, as some have been found to bind several hundreds of thousands base pairs upstream or downstream of the start ....

Genomics

... 4 See also 5 Sources and external links History Genomics appeared in the 1980s and took off in the 1990s with the initiation of genome projects for several species. The related field of genetics is the study of genes and their role in inheritance. The first genome to ...

Human Genome Project

... earlier than planned. The consortium comprised: China France Germany Japan United Kingdom United States initiation of the Project was the culmination of several years of work supported by the US Department of Energy, in particular a feasibility workshop in 1986 ...

Isozyme

... allows it to serve different functions in cells of specific organs, such as control of insulin release by the beta cells of the pancreas , or initiation of glycogen synthesis by liver cells. Both of these processes must only occur when glucose is abundant, or problems occur. Distinguishing ...

Neurotransmitter

... a cell, depending on the receptor. Neurotransmitters may cause either excitatory or inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. That is, they may help the initiation of a nerve impulse in the receiving neuron, or they may discourage such an impulse, by modifying the local membrane voltage potential. In the central ...

Protein biosynthesis

... for further process. Translation Main article: Translation During translation, the message of mRNA is decoded to make proteins . initiation and elongation occur when the ribosome recognizes the starting codon on the mRNA strand and binds to it. The ribosome has sites, which allow ...

RNA

... The synthesis continues until a termination sequence is reached. The resulting RNA molecule is the primary transcript . Modulation of the rate of initiation of RNA synthesis is one of the most important ways in which gene expression is regulated. RNA world hypothesis The RNA world hypothesis ...
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