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Infection in Biological Definition

Antibiotic

... antibiotics varies with the location of the infection and the ability of the antibiotic to reach this ... a simple scratch once always carried the risk of infection and death. See also Timeline of antibiotics . ... which they are effective, and by the type of infection in which they are useful, which depends on the ...

Apoptosis

... Functions of apoptosis 1.1 Cell damage or infection 1.2 Response to stress or DNA damage 1.3 ... Functions of apoptosis Cell damage or infection Apoptosis can occur, for instance, when a cell ... plays a critical role in the fact that persistent infection by oncogenic HPVs can result in the development ...

Avian influenza

... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 infection 2 Avian influenza in humans 3 ... 6 References 7 External links infection The causative agent is the avian influenza (AI) ... meat. Cats are also thought to be possible infection vectors for H5N1 strains of avian flu (Kuiken et ...

Bacterium

... humans . The role of bacteria in disease and infection is important. Some bacteria act as pathogens ... spot , fireblight , and wilts . The mode of infection includes contact, air, food, water, and ... Antiseptic measures may be taken to prevent infection by bacteria, for example, prior to cutting the ...

Escherichia coli

... and into the urinary tract , they can cause an infection sometimes referred to as " honeymoon cystitis " ... bacteria into the bladder. However urinary tract infection is seen in both males and females and in roughly ... urethra, poor toilet hygiene can predispose to infection but other factors are also important ( pregnancy ...

Bacterium

... humans . The role of bacteria in disease and infection is important. Some bacteria act as pathogens ... spot , fireblight , and wilts . The mode of infection includes contact, air, food, water, and ... Antiseptic measures may be taken to prevent infection by bacteria, for example, prior to cutting the ...

Hepatitis B

... surface antigen confers a 20% risk of passing the infection to her offspring at the time of birth. This risk ... is incomplete on one strand. Hepatitis D infection requires a concomitant infection with hepatitis B. Co-infection with Hepatitis D ...

Immune system

... system may take days or weeks after an initial infection to have an effect. However, most organisms are ... barrier The first defense includes barriers to infection such as skin and mucus coating of the gut and ... ensures that most mammals that survive an initial infection by a pathogen are generally immune to further ...

Blood

... various components of the immune system defending the body against infection . Hormones also travel in the blood. There are about 4-6 liters of ... infections, bloodstained objects are treated as a biohazard . infection of the blood is bacteremia or sepsis . Malaria and trypanosomiasis ...

Diabetes mellitus

... (the "flu"), or an overwhelming new health problem (e.g., bacterial infection , myocardial infarction ). Insulin deficiency switches many aspects of ... can lead to foot ulcers, and possibly progressing to necrosis , infection and gangrene , sometimes requiring limb amputation , see below ...

Edward Jenner

... However it had two major disadvantages: it was dangerous, and until the infection from inoculation had run its course, the subject was infected, and ... There was a local folk tradition amongst those who milked cows, that an infection with the so-called ' cowpox ' protected one from contracting smallpox . ...

Kidney

... relatively common and particularly painful disorder. Pyelonephritis is infection of the kidneys and is frequently caused by complication of a urinary tract infection . Azotemia is a toxic condition characterized by abnormal and ...

Lytic cycle

... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Description 1.1 infection 1.2 Growth 1.3 Replication and lysis Description The lytic cycle is a three-stage process. infection When a virus infects a cell, it first binds with the cell membrane ...

Vaccine

... immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or 'wild' strain of the organism. The term derives from ... of the other, immunity can be created against diseases that have complex infection processes In recent years a new type of vaccine, created from an ...

Antibiotic resistance

... therapy Phage therapy is a more recent alternative that can cope with the problem of resistance. See also tuberculosis nosocomial infection External links Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus - Guidelines for Healthcare Workers Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics ...

Antibody

... for the chronic nature of many minor skin diseases (such as cold sores ); any given outbreak is quickly suppressed by the immune system, but the infection is never truly eradicated because some cells retain viruses that will resume it later. Medical applications Detection of particular antibodies ...

Antigen

... are antigens that have been generated within the cell, as a result of normal cell metabolism , or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection . The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex with class I histocompatibility molecules . If cytotoxic CD8 + T cells ...

Brain

... therapy , by drugs , or by a combination of treatments. Some diseases that affect the brain are caused by germs. Viral or bacterial infection of the meninges, the membrane that covers the brain, can lead to meningitis . Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a deadly disease among cattle ...

Cancer

... in the synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandins ). Considerable research effort is now devoted to the development of vaccines (to prevent infection by oncogenic infectious agents, as well as to mount an immune response against cancer-specific epitopes) and to potential venues for gene therapy ...

Defective interfering particle

... ( DIPs ) are virus particles that are missing part or all of their genome . Because of these deletions in their genome, DIPs cannot sustain an infection by themselves. Instead, they depend on coinfection with a suitable helper virus. The helper virus provides the gene functions that are absent ...

Dialysis

... to elevate the bag of dialysis fluid and a method of warming the fluid are all that is needed. The main consideration is the very high potential for infection with an open catheter; peritonitis is a common complication, as are infections of the catheter exit site or "tunnel" (path from the peritoneum to ...

Ebola

... Effort . Planet Ark. 27 December 2000 . 3 September 2003 . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization. infection for Health Control of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting . Atlanta, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1998 . 3 ...

Foot and mouth disease

... remain asymptomatic, that is, they do not suffer from or show signs of the disease; but they are carriers of FMD and can transmit it to others. infection with foot-and-mouth disease tends to occur locally, that is, the virus is passed on to susceptible animals through direct contact with infected ...

Fungus

... barriers of the human body and establish infections, the infections are classified according to the tissue levels initially colonized. A fungal infection of the human body is called a mycosis . The most common of human mycoses is caused by dermatophytes . Although seen in all areas of the body one ...

Insulin

... will be hyperglycemia. Both of these can lead to potentially life-threatening conditions. In addition, indwelling catheters pose considerable risk of infection and ulceration. Thus far, insulin pumps require considerable care and effort to use correctly. However, some diabetics are able to keep their glucose ...

Kwashiorkor

... , vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, if a child with reduced type I nutrients or anti-oxidants is exposed to stress (e.g. an infection or toxin) he/she is more liable to develop kwashiorkor. ...

Malaria

... and the pharma giant GlaxoSmithKline announced a partially successful field trial in October 2004 , for RTS,S/AS02A , a vaccine which reduces infection risk by 30% and severity of infections by over 50% [1] . Further necessary research will delay this vaccine from commercial release until around ...

Max Delbr

... 1941, he married Mary Bruce, with whom he had four children. In 1942, he and Salvador Luria demonstrated that bacterial resistance to virus infection is caused by random mutation and not adaptive change. For that, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969 , sharing it ...

Antibiotic resistance

... therapy Phage therapy is a more recent alternative that can cope with the problem of resistance. See also tuberculosis nosocomial infection External links Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus - Guidelines for Healthcare Workers Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics ...

Mycology

... source for medicinals (see penicillin ) and food ( beer , wine , cheese , edible mushrooms ), as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection . Mycology is closely related to phytopathology : the study of plant diseases. Historically, mycology was a branch of Botany (despite fungi not ...

Outbreak

... Virus outbreaks occur when a virus bypasses infection control measures and a relatively high number of infections are observed where no cases or sporadic cases occurred in the past. The study of ...

Prion

... the "protein only" model for prion disease. Although the identity and general properties of prions are now well-understood, the mechanism of prion infection and replication remains mysterious. One idea (the "Protein X" hypothesis) is that an as-yet unidentified cellular enzyme (Protein X) catalyzes the ...

Proprioception

... trains reaction time and spatial location. Oliver Sacks once reported the case of a young woman who lost her proprioception due to a viral infection of her spinal cord . At first she was not able to move properly at all. Later she relearned by using her sight (watching her feet) and vestibulum ...

Restriction enzyme

... enzymes. The term restriction comes from the fact that these enzymes were discovered in E. coli strains that appeared to be restricting the infection by certain bacteriophages. Restriction enzymes therefore are believed to be a mechanism evolved by bacteria to resist viral attack and to help in the ...

Robert Koch

... , it must be : found in all cases of the disease examined prepared and maintained in a pure culture capable of producing the original infection , even after several generations in culture could be retrieved from an inoculated animal and cultured again. But after his success the quality ...

Unsolved problems in biology

... of natural electric fields? Viruses / Immune system . What causes immune system deficiencies ? What are the signs of current or past infection to discover where Ebola hides between human outbreaks? What is the origin of antibody diversity ? What leads to the complexity of the immune ...

Varicella zoster virus

... (VZV), also known as human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3), is one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans (and other vertebrates). Primary VZV infection results in varicella (chickenpox), which may rarely result in complications including VZV encephalitis . Even when clinical symptoms of varicella ...

Yellow fever

... africanus , and Aedes aegypti in Africa; and the Haemagogus and Sabethes genera. The course of the disease varies from an inapparent infection to an intense feverish illness with high mortality rate. There is a difference between disease outbreaks in rural or forest areas and in towns. ...

Virology

... Viral replication Viral pathogenesis Viral immunology Viral vaccines Diagnostic methods Antiviral chemotherapy infection control measures Virus outbreaks See also molecular biology phage , the virus of bacteria / prokaryotes viral plaque ...
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