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Independent in Biological Definition

Enzyme

... state is reached, must always be identical, independent of the specific individual pathway taken from ... 1897 , yeast extracts were used to ferment sugar independent from the living yeast cells by Eduard Buchner , ... act, relative to mutation, somewhat like an independent subunit which can be duplicated, deleted, moved, ...

Parallel evolution

... biology , parallel evolution occurs when two independent species evolve together at the same time in the ... evolutionary relay . In convergent evolution , independent organisms acquire similar characteristics through ... evolution, evolutionary relay describes how independent species acquire similar characteristics through ...

Rudolf Steiner

... School movement—perhaps the largest independent schooling system in the world. As of 2004 , ... innovative financial services". According to the independent organizations Co-op America and the Social ... not just rich ones, should have access to independent schools for their children and freedom of choice ...

Species

... both also agree that a species must have its own independent evolutionary history—otherwise the ... and to choose factors that are functionally independent (height and weight, for example, should usually ... but one can no longer think of species as independent and immutable. The rise of a new species from a ...

Convergent evolution

... . Similar to convergent evolution, evolutionary relay describes how independent species acquire similar characteristics through their evolution in similar ... extinct ichthyosaurs and sharks ). Parallel evolution occurs when two independent species evolve together at the same time in the same ecospace and ...

Convergent evolution

... . Similar to convergent evolution, evolutionary relay describes how independent species acquire similar characteristics through their evolution in similar ... extinct ichthyosaurs and sharks ). Parallel evolution occurs when two independent species evolve together at the same time in the same ecospace and ...

Meiosis

... or paternal homologues may point to either pole, this is known as independent assortment . Anaphase I Anaphase I sees the division of ... equatorial lining-up is random, resulting in new allelic recombinationis. independent assortment forms the basis of Mendel 's second law . Lastly, chiasmata ...

Mendelian inheritance

... several fundamental laws of Mendelian inheritance. Mendel's law of independent assortment Also known as Mendel's Second Law The most important principle of Mendel's law of independent assortment is that the emergence of one trait will not affect the ...

Active transport

... are two main types, primary and secondary . In primary transport energy is directly coupled to movement of desired substance across a membrane, independent of any other species. Secondary transport concerns the diffusion of one species across a membrane to drive the transport of another. Primary ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... ADP + GTP ATP + GDP There is talk of using ATP as a power source for nanotechnology and implants. Artificial pacemakers could become independent of batteries . See also Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) ATPases ATP hydrolysis Citric acid ...

Alfred Russel Wallace

... Wallace ( January 8 1823 — November 7 1913 ) was a British naturalist , geographer , anthropologist and biologist . Wallace's independent proposal of a theory of evolution by natural selection prompted Charles Darwin to reveal his own more developed and researched, but ...

Alga

... energy through photosynthesis . They are generally regarded as simple plants , and some are related to the higher plants . Others represent independent lines of evolutionary development, although they all appear to have acquired photosynthesis from cyanobacteria . All algae lack true leaves , ...

Apoptosis

... studies of a microscopic soil dwelling roundworm but rather a framework for a process fundamental to human biology and human disease." In 1992, two independent teams working at pharmaceutical companies had identified and purified interleukin-1-beta converting enzyme (ICE) in human cells, and succeeded in ...

Biology

... they have with each other and with their environment . Biology encompasses a broad spectrum of academic fields that are often viewed as independent disciplines. Together, they study life over a wide range of scales . Life is studied at the atomic and molecular scale in molecular biology , ...

Bacterium

... , or simple cell division. During this process, one cell divides into two daughter cells with the development of a transverse cell wall. However, independent of sexual reproduction, genetic variations can occur within individual cells through recombinant events such as mutation (random genetic change ...

Biologist

... of Labor.) Training Many positions in biology as a field require an academic degree . A PhD (or equivalent) is generally required to direct independent research but a bachelor's or master's degree is sufficient for most non-research positions. Training on the undergraduate level usually is very ...

Biomechanics

... constitutive matrix is rarely used. Instead, simplifications such as isotropy , transverse isotropy , and incompressibility reduce the number of independent components. Commonly used second order tensors include the Cauchy stress tensor, the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the deformation gradient ...

Centromere

... role in specifying the centromere in most organisms. The daughter chromosomes will assemble centromeres in the same place as the parent chromosome, independent of sequence. However, there must still be some original way in which the centromere is specified, even if it is subsequently propagated ...

Chromatography

... in equilibrium. The partition coefficient K is based on this equilibrium, and is defined by the following equation: K is assumed to be independent of concentration, and can change if experimental conditions are changed, for example temperature is increased or decreased. As K increases, it takes ...

Chromosomal crossover

... genes. Any pair of homologous chromosomes may be expected to cross over three or four times during meiosis. This aids evolution by increasing independent assortment, and reducing the genetic linkage between genes on the same chromosome. The physical basis of crossing over was first demonstrated by ...

Bacterium

... , or simple cell division. During this process, one cell divides into two daughter cells with the development of a transverse cell wall. However, independent of sexual reproduction, genetic variations can occur within individual cells through recombinant events such as mutation (random genetic change ...

Gene

... Although he did not use the term gene , he explained his results in terms of inherited characteristics. Mendel was also the first to hypothesize independent assortment, the distinction between dominant and recessive traits, the distinction between a heterozygote and homozygote, and the difference between ...

Genetic recombination

... in one offspring does not have any influence on the statistical probability that another offspring will have the same combination. This theory of " independent assortment " of alleles is fundamental to genetic inheritance. However, there is an exception that requires further discussion. The frequency of ...

Memory

... that is explicitly stored and retrieved. Declarative memory can be further sub-divided into semantic memory , which concerns facts taken independent of context; and episodic memory , which concerns information specific to a particular context, such as a time and place. Semantic memory allows the ...

Mitochondrion

... originated as prokaryotic endosymbionts . Essentially this widely accepted hypothesis postulates that the ancestors of modern mitochondria were independent bacteria that colonized the interior of the ancient precursor of all eukaryotic life. External links Mitochondrion Reconstructed by ...

Mitochondrion

... originated as prokaryotic endosymbionts . Essentially this widely accepted hypothesis postulates that the ancestors of modern mitochondria were independent bacteria that colonized the interior of the ancient precursor of all eukaryotic life. External links Mitochondrion Reconstructed by ...

Neuroscience

... and the rest of the body, both in terms of cellular functions and the goals of the field, that cellular and molecular neuroscience functions as an independent field. Development - This field studies the ways in which the ectodermally-derived nervous system gets organized in the adult animal. The ...

Parthenogenesis

... reproduction is unknown. Because multiple hybridization events can occur, individual parthenogenetic whiptail species can consist of multiple, independent asexual lineages. Within lineages, there is very little genetic diversity, but different lineages may have quite different genotypes. An interesting ...

Alga

... energy through photosynthesis . They are generally regarded as simple plants , and some are related to the higher plants . Others represent independent lines of evolutionary development, although they all appear to have acquired photosynthesis from cyanobacteria . All algae lack true leaves , ...

Physiology

... of physiology due to his exemplary teaching in Leiden and textbook 'Institutiones medicae'(1708). Areas of physiology Physiology has several independent subdivisions. Electrophysiology deals with the operation of nerves and muscles ; neurophysiology concerns the physiology of brains and cell ...

Proteome

... isolating them, colliding them with a nonreactive gas, and then cataloging the fragment ions produced. Proteome is also the name of a formerly independent company involved in protein functional annotation; this company has been purchased by Incyte Genomics. See also Proteomics ...

Punctuated equilibrium

... is often incorrectly assumed that he insisted that the rate of change be constant or nearly so. Punctuation appears also to be compatible with the independent proposals of the theory of evolution by natural selection of Patrick Matthew and Alfred Russel Wallace . See also: Adaptive radiation ...

Restriction enzyme

... cleavage are at variable distances from these recognition sites, and can be hundreds of bases away. In type II systems, the restriction enzyme is independent of its methylase, and cleavage occurs at very specific sites that are within or close to the recognition sequence. The vast majority of known ...

Thermoregulation

... of the temperature of the latter. Those animals high in the scale of evolution, as birds and mammals, have a high temperature almost constant and independent of that of the surrounding air, whereas among the lower animals there is much variation of body temperature, dependent entirely on their ....
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