... An antibody is a protein used by the immune
system to identify and neutralize foreign ... 3.5 IgE
4.1 The humoral immune
5 Medical applications
6 ... are synthesized and secreted by B cells of the immune
system. B cells are activated upon binding to ...
Immunogen - Any substance that provokes an immune
response (provokes immunity) when introduced into ... polysaccharide). Its ability to provoke the immune
response depends on its foreignness to the host, ... Tolerogen - An antigen that invokes a specific immune
unresponsiveness due to its molecular form . A ...
2 Apoptotic process
... tissue or from a cell that is part of the immune
If a cell's capability of apoptosis ... the places they should be in body tissues.
B cells and T cells are ...
... that play a large role in the humoral immune
response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune
The abbreviation "B" stands for the ... to the antigen(s) encountered during the primary immune
response; able to live for a long time, these ...
... run designed to treat children with an inherited immune
deficiency, as well as children or adults with ... and they have to remain undetected by the body's immune
Much hope has been placed in viruses to ... all virus-based vectors is recognition by the immune
system. When familiar viruses are detected in the ...
... the cell ). Glycoproteins are important for immune
cell recognition, especially in mammals . Examples of glycoproteins in the immune
molecules such as antibodies ... interact with T-cells as part of the adaptive immune
Other examples of glycoproteins ...
... antivirals such as lamivudine and adefovir and immune
system modulators such as interferon alpha . ... several orders of magnitude thus helping a body's immune
system clear the infection. Treatment strategies ... antibodies to the hepatitis B virus (Hepatitis B immune
globulin or HBIG). When given with the vaccine ...
... The immune
system is the collection of organs and tissues ... material. It may be broken down into the adaptive immune
system (only found in vertebrates  ), composed ... defense systems, encompassing both the adaptive immune
system and other passive defenses, such as the ...
... science that covers study of all aspects of the immune
system in all organisms . It deals with, among ... things, the physiological functioning of the immune
system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune
system in immunological disorders ( autoimmune ...
Major histocompatibility complex
... containing many genes with important immune
system roles. In humans , the MHC spans almost ... by immunologists for its pivotal role in the immune
system, the MHC has also attracted the attention ... peptides. Foreign peptides that provoke an immune
response are termed antigens .
... relatively protected from attack by the body's immune
system because it stays inside liver and blood ... and cannot serve as a reliable target for the immune
By the time the human immune
system learns to recognise the protein and starts ...
... because they were produced by one type of immune
cell , all clones of a single parent cell. ... such as a mouse or a human , some of the immune
system 's B-cells will turn into plasma cells ... antibodies, and these are rejected by the human immune
system. Various approaches to overcome this ...
... Still more functions filled by proteins include immune
response and the storage and transport of ... can cause problems as well, such as causing the immune
system to overreact, liver dysfunction from ... and some may trigger a response from the immune
system while others are perfectly safe. Many ...
... lactic acid ), viscous, and patrolled by immune
cells. The components in the seminal plasma ... hormones are involved in supressing an immune
response by the female against the foreign ... pointing to a suppression response by the immune
system . Further research, such as that by S. ...
... of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune
response . The abbreviation "T" stands for ... Helper T cells (CD4 + ) are "middlemen" in the immune
response. When they get activated, they ... T cells secrete cytokines that turn off the immune
response once an antigen has been eliminated ...
... such vaccines may have incomplete or short-lived immune
responses and are likely to require booster ... bacteria have outer coats that inexperienced immune
systems don't recognize. By linking these ... to proteins and toxins that reliably provoke an immune
Subunit - rather than introducing a ...
Unsolved problems in biology
... natural electric fields?
Viruses / immune
system . What causes immune
system deficiencies ? What are the signs of ... diversity ? What leads to the complexity of the immune
system ? What is the relationship between ...
... of the surface antigens of the two original strains. Because the human immune
system has difficulty recognizing the new influenza strain, it may be ... of influenza (or other things, in a more general sense) to evade the immune
Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including ...
... nutrients, removes waste products, and contains various components of the immune
system defending the body against infection . Hormones also travel in ... types .
White blood cells or leukocytes (3.0%), are part of the immune
system ; they destroy infectious agents.
Platelets or thrombocytes ...
... all tissues and under many circumstances, such as response to injury, immune
responses, or to replace cells that have died or have been shed as a ... prevent infection by oncogenic infectious agents, as well as to mount an immune
response against cancer-specific epitopes) and to potential venues for ...
... adults as well. It is an autoimmune disorder , in which the body's own immune
system attacks the beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans of the ... particular HLA genotypes (i.e. genetic "self" identifiers used by the immune
system). However, even in those who have inherited the susceptibility, ...
... cotton factory . A natural reservoir is a carrier of the virus that is immune
to its effects. Although many of the creatures — ranging from ... and lived to tell about it, so it is impossible to say whether a person is immune
to it after they survive a first episode.
... the fact that milkmaids often contracted cowpox, and would thereafter be immune
to the disfigurement of smallpox.)
Cowpox is related to smallpox and ... the boy was completely unaffected, showing that cowpox had made him immune
Jenner called his method vaccination, as the original ...
List of gene families
1 Genes-encoding regulatory proteins
2 Genes-encoding immune
3 Related protein families
3.1 Motor proteins ... Achaete-scute complex ( Neuroblast formation)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
Memory B cell
... Memory B cells are B cells that although activated by the immune
system, they are stored inside the circulatory system for later use, for ... T cells , and plasma cells they never become directly involved in the immune
response to foreign objects in a living body. If a pathogen the body ...
... for many illnesses, including goitre , scurvy, osteoporosis , poor immune
system response (and indirectly some forms of cancers), disorders of cell ... Maintaining proper body structures and processes, e.g. muscle function, immune
protection, bone density and strength
Repair and development of all of ...
... type as the emitting cell. An example for autocrine signals is found in immune
Juxtacrine signals are transmitted along cell membranes via ... .
Regulation of exocytosis of neurotransmitters .
When considering signal ...
... in eukaryotes.
For example alternative splicing is what makes our immune
systems so diverse (much more diverse, for example, than a simple recombination of our parents immune
Splice variants have been used to account for the relatively ...
Skeletal system ( Human skeleton )
Colon or large intestine
... techniques from both fields.
Anatomy is an important part of physiology and considers how organ systems in animals such as the nervous , immune
, endocrine , respiratory and circulatory systems function and interact. The study of these systems is shared with the medically oriented ...
Helper T cell
... and interleukin-13.
Memory T H cells are specific to the antigen they first encountered and can be called upon during the secondary immune
Most T H cells have present on the cell surface the protein CD4 , which is attracted to portions of the Class II MHC molecule. This ...
... can include stimulation or inhibition of growth, induction or suppression of apoptosis (programmed cell death), activation or inhibition of the immune
system , regulating metabolism and preparation for a new activity (e.g. fighting, fleeing, mating) or phase of life (e.g. puberty, caring for ...
Human Genome Project
... many major evolutionary milestones (the emergence of the ribosome and organelles , the development of embryos with body plans, the vertebrate immune
system ) can be related to the molecular level. Many questions about the similarities and differences between humans and our closest relatives (the ...
... ligature (string) around the pancreatic duct, and when examined several weeks later the pancreatic digestive cells had died and been absorbed by the immune
system, leaving thousands of islets. They then isolated the protein from these islets to produce what they called isletin .
Macleod saw the value ...
... chickens, Pasteur discovered that he could not infect them, even with fresh bacteria: the weakened bacteria had caused the chickens to become immune
to the disease, although they had not actually caused the disease. In the 1870s he applied this immunization method to anthrax , which affected ...
... an anatomical barrier between the internal and external environment in bodily defence; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune
Sensation: enables irritability
Storage: acts as a storage centre for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of vitamin D ...
... transplantations, according to Hoon Han , one of the researchers. "We don’t need a strict match between cord blood stem cell type and the immune
system of a patient because the latter accepts the former pretty well thanks to its immaturity," Han said. 
Adult stem ...