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Identical in Biological Definition

Antibody

... is a "Y"-shaped molecule that consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains connected by disulfide bonds . ... of antibodies at the same time. However, they are identical in their specificity for antigen, conferred by ...

Artificial life

... were part of its own body, it could create an identical machine. He followed this idea by creating (with ... the system to consistently create new "organisms" identical to itself, so long as there was a random pool of ... compared that to the reaction of real termites to identical changes in laboratory colonies, and refined their ...

Cloning

... Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original. A clone in the biological ... multi-cellular organism that is genetically identical to another living organism. Sometimes this can ... reproduces asexually or when two genetically identical individuals are produced by accident (as with ...

Isozyme

... different variants of the same enzyme having identical functions and present in the same individual . ... time, if the function of the new variant remains identical to the original, then it is likely that one or ... variants of the same enzyme . Unless they are identical in terms of their biochemical properties, for ...

Mitosis

... material has been duplicated, there are two identical copies of each chromosome in the cell. identical chromosomes (called sister chromosomes) are ... of anaphase, the cell has succeeded in separating identical copies of the genetic material into two distinct ...

Species

... mitosis so that each generation is genetically identical to the previous generation. In practice, ... there are seven pairs of apparently almost identical marine snapping shrimp ( Altheus ) populations on ... that represented a group of similar or nearly identical organisms. No other relationships beyond that ...

Mitosis

... material has been duplicated, there are two identical copies of each chromosome in the cell. identical chromosomes (called sister chromosomes) are ... of anaphase, the cell has succeeded in separating identical copies of the genetic material into two distinct ...

Twin

... Types of twins 1.1 Fraternal twins 1.2 identical twins 1.2.1 Mixed sex identical twins 1.3 Semi-identical twins 2 ... is, non-identical twins do run in families. identical twins ...

Cilium

... cannot beat and usually serves as a sensor. Cilia are structurally identical to eukaryotic flagella , and the two terms are often used ... organization center called a basal body . Basal body is structurally identical to and functionally interchangeable with centriole in the animal cells. ...

DNA

... DNA strand as a template for synthesizing a new strand which is nearly identical to the previous strand. Errors that occur in the synthesis are known as ... the sequence-reading preferences of enzymes, even if both strands carried identical instead of complementary sequences, cells could properly translate only ...

Genetic fingerprinting

... but a laboratory worker may conclude that similar -- but not precisely identical -- band patterns result from identical genetic samples with some imperfection in the agarose gel. However, in ...

Genetic recombination

... replication, the tetrad formed by replication contains two pairs of two identical chromatids; after crossing over, each of the four chromatids carries a ... recombination, transpositional recombination does not require an identical strand of DNA in the mobile element to match with the target DNA. ...

Genomics

... with humans . This number indicates the percentage of base pairs that are identical between the two species. Here is a list of genetic similarity to humans, ... address; also Human Genome Project 100% identical twins Chimpanzee 98.4% sources: Americans for Medical Progress ; ...

Insulin

... required for all animal (including human) life. The mechanism is almost identical in nematode worms (ie, C. elegans ), fish, and in mammals. In humans, ... was used instead. All have 'insulin activity' in humans as they are nearly identical to human insulin (2 amino acid difference for bovine insulin, 1 amino acid ...

Parthenogenesis

... have both benefits and costs, is that offspring are typically genetically identical or nearly identical to their parent. This genetic similarity can be beneficial if the genotype ...

Prophase

... . Since the genetic material has been duplicated, there are two identical copies of each chromosome in the cell. identical chromosomes (called sister chromosomes) are attached to each other at a ...

Restriction enzyme

... enzyme; because cuts made by a given type of enzyme always produce identical ends with identical sequences. These rules enable molecular biologists to anticipate which ...

Stem cell

... whom they will be used, it is called autologous and when collected from identical individuals, it is referred to as syngeneic. Xenogeneic transfer of cells ... is still young enough to be able to divide into two embryos, making identical twins , or in rare cases, merge with another blastocyst, even one of the ...

Allele

... paired homologous chromosomes in their somatic cells , and thus contain two copies of each gene. An organism in which both copies of the gene are identical - that is, have the same allele - is said to be homozygous for that gene. An organism which has two different alleles of the gene is said to be ...

Bioinformatics

... both of these proteins have completely different amino acid sequences, their protein structures are virtually identical, which reflects their near identical purposes. Other techniques for predicting protein structure include protein threading and de novo (from scratch) physics-based modeling. See ...

Chromatid

... forms one part of a chromosome after it has coalesced for the process of mitosis or meiosis . Each chromosome consists of two exactly identical (" sister ") chromatids. After they have been pulled apart by the mitotic spindle , chromatids are called "chromosomes". Sister chromatids are ...

Chromosome

... about chromosomes in genetic algorithms , see Chromosome (genetic algorithm) . Figure 1: Chromosome. (1) Chromatid . One of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase . (2) Centromere . The point where the two chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3) Short ....

Chromatography

... and the setup. It is therefore important to compare the retention of the test compound to that of one or more standard compounds under absolutely identical conditions. Plate theory The plate theory of chromotography was developed by Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington ...

Bioinformatics

... both of these proteins have completely different amino acid sequences, their protein structures are virtually identical, which reflects their near identical purposes. Other techniques for predicting protein structure include protein threading and de novo (from scratch) physics-based modeling. See ...

Electrical energy

... difference , the same expression gives the energy transformed when the charge moves through the potential difference. Electrical energy is also identical to the electromagnetic fields surrounding a transmission line , the fields contained in capacitors and inductors, or the fields propagating in ...

Morphogenesis

... give rise to the characteristic forms of tissues , organs and overall body anatomy . In the human embryo, the change from a cluster of nearly identical cells at the blastula stage to a post- gastrulation embryo with structured tissues and organs is controlled by the genetic "program" and can ...

Flagellum

... or kinetosome, which is the microtubule organizing center for flagellar microtubules and is about 500 nanometers long. Basal bodies are structually identical to and functionally interchaglable with centrioles in the animal cells. The flagellum is encased within the cell's plasma membrane , so that the ...

Hermaphrodite

... fishes that tend to have three distinct sexual types. Small females, immature males and supermales. The small females and the immature males have identical colorations. The supermale is usually brightly colored, and there is only one in a given area of the reef. This supermale dominates the other ...

Homunculus

... explained many of the mysteries of conception (for instance, why it takes two). However it was later pointed out that if the sperm was a homunculus, identical in all but size to an adult, then the homunculus must have sperm of its own. This led to a reductio ad absurdum , with a chain of homunculi "all the ...

Homozygote

... (position) on homologous chromosomes . When an organism is referred to as being homozygous for a specific gene, it means that it carries two identical copies of that gene on the two corresponding chromosomes (e.g. the genotype is AA or aa ). A homozygous dominant genotype occurs when a ...

Human Genome Project

... been considering technologies required for such an undertaking at least as early as 1985 2 . Eight years after the HGP was being initiated, an identical quest was initiated separately with private venture capital by a company called Celera Genomics (founded by Craig Venter ) while the HGP was still ...

Ion channel

... membrane protein or more typically an assembly of several proteins. Such "multi- subunit " assemblies usually involve a circular arrangement of identical or related proteins closely packed around a water-filled pore through the plane of the membrane or lipid bilayer . While large-pore channels ...

Louis Pasteur

... of light passing through it. The mystery was that tartaric acid derived by chemical synthesis had no such effect, even though its reactions were identical and its elemental composition was the same. Pasteur noticed, upon examination of the tiny crystals of tartaric acid, that the crystals came in ...

Microbiology

... Unicellular eukaryotes reproduce by mitotic division and prokaryotes by binary fission . This allows for the propagation of genetically identical ( clonal ) populations. They may be frozen for long periods of time. Even if 90% of the cells are killed by the freezing process, there are ...

Monoclonal antibody

... Monoclonal antibodies ( mAb ) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell , all clones of a single parent cell. Given any substance, it is possible to create ...

Morphogenesis

... give rise to the characteristic forms of tissues , organs and overall body anatomy . In the human embryo, the change from a cluster of nearly identical cells at the blastula stage to a post- gastrulation embryo with structured tissues and organs is controlled by the genetic "program" and can ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... other as separate), MRI provides far better contrast resolution (the ability to distinguish the differences between two arbitrarily similar but not identical tissues). The basis of this ability is the complex library of pulse sequences that the modern medical MRI scanner includes, each of which is ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... of the fingerprint of each of its parents, giving it a new, unique fingerprint. Although these resulting 'fingerprints' are unique (except for identical twins), genetic relationships, for example, parent-child or siblings, can be determined from two or more genetic fingerprints, which can be used for ...

Prion

... of prion-forming regions lead to distinct structural features on the surface of prion fibers. As a result, only free protein molecules that are identical in amino acid sequence to the prion protein can be recruited into the growing fiber. This "specificity" phenomenon may explain why transmission of ...

Retrovirus

... Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is a virus which has a genome consisting of two identical plus sense RNA molecules. It relies on reverse transcriptase to perform a kind of reverse transcription of its genome from RNA into DNA for ...
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