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Hydroxyl in Biological Definition

Alcohol

... applied to any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group ( - O H ) is bound to a carbon atom, ... The functional group of an alcohol is a hydroxyl group bonded to an sp 3 hybridized carbon. It ... Phenol , an alcohol where the hydroxyl group is bound to a benzene ring Fatty ...

Carbohydrate

... aldehydes and ketones with many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon except ... . Further, each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is ... The aldehyde or ketone group may react with a hydroxyl group on a different carbon atom to form a ...

Glucose

... . In this ring, each carbon is linked to hydroxyl and hydrogen side groups with the exception of ... has to do with the isomeric conformation of the hydroxyl on carbon 5. If it is to the right in the ... they differ in the orientation of the hydroxyl group linked to the first carbon in the ring. ...

Phospholipid

... group of each fatty acid is esterified to the hydroxyl groups on carbon-1 and carbon-2. The phosphate ... formed from a phosphoester linkage between the hydroxyl of an alcohol ( serine or inositol ) and ... . Subsequent substitution of the terminal hydroxyl group by phosphatidyl choline forms ....

RNA

... from DNA by the presence of an additional hydroxyl group, attached to each pentose ring; as well ... from DNA except for the critical presence of a hydroxyl group attached to the pentose ring in the 2' position (DNA has a hydrogen atom rather than a hydroxyl group). ...

Hydrolysis

... that involves breaking an ester link, one hydrolysis product contains a hydroxyl functional group , while the other contains a carboxylic acid ... The fragment that was originally an alkyl group collects the remaining hydroxyl group from the water molecule. Thus the ester is effectively reversed ...

Kidney

... of the kidney The kidney regulates the pH, mineral ion concentration and water composition of the blood. By exchanging hydronium ions and hydroxyl ions , the blood plasma is maintained by the kidney at pH 7.4. Urine, on the other hand, becomes either acidic at pH 5 or alkaline at pH 8. Sodium ...

Lipid

... makes them amphiphilic molecules (having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions). In the case of cholesterol , the polar group is a mere -OH ( hydroxyl or alcohol). In the case of phospholipids, the polar groups are considerably larger and more polar, as described below. Phospholipids or, more ...

Oxidative phosphorylation

... species Several highly reactive, transient oxygen derivatives can be formed during this process: Hydrogen peroxide Superoxide anion hydroxyl radical ...

Pentose phosphate pathway

... of glucose 6-phosphate into 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone . This reaction is catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase . The hydroxyl group located on carbon 1 of glucose 6-phosphate is converted into a keto group, and in the process, NADPH is generated. The second step is the ...
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