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Hydrolysis in Biological Definition

Adenosine triphosphate

... . The energy used by human cells requires the hydrolysis of 200 to 300 moles of ATP daily. This means ... diphosphokinase : Energy is released when hydrolysis of the phosphate-phosphate bonds is carried ... to carry out the work of the cell. Also, the hydrolysis yields free inorganic phosphate and adenosine ...

Hydrolysis

... hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is ... substance, but no cleavage occurs. Types hydrolysis of an ester link In a hydrolysis reaction that involves breaking an ester link, ...

Hydrolytic enzyme

... fat molecules into their simplest units. The hydrolysis of polymers by hydrolytic enzymes results in free monomers . During hydrolysis ( hydro-,"water";lysis-,"break" ) a water ... holding the two monomers. The reverse of a hydrolysis reaction is a condensation reaction . ...

ATPase

... "nonelectrogenic" transporters, respectively. The coupling between ATP hydrolysis and transport is more or less a strict chemical reaction, in which a fixed ... can also function in reverse; that is, use energy released by ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against their thermodynamic gradient. External links ...

Enzyme

... (e.g., a methyl or phosphate group) EC 3 Hydrolases : catalyze the hydrolysis of various bonds EC 4 Lyases : cleave various bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation EC 5 Isomerases : catalyze isomerization changes ...

Lipase

... A Lipase is a water - soluble enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in waterinsoluble, lipid substrates. Most lipases ... alpha/beta hydrolase fold (see image below) and employ a chymotrypsin-like hydrolysis mechanism involving a serine nucleophile, an acid residue (usually ...

Polysaccharide

... units. Starches are insoluble in water . They can be digested by hydrolysis catalyzed by enzymes called amylases , which can break the alpha- ... molecules by the addition of a phosphate, rather than a water as in hydrolysis . This process yields phosphorylated glucose molecules, which can be ...

Actin

... filaments actin it forms Actomyosin , which provides the mechanism for muscle contraction. Actin uses ATP for energy. The ATP allows, through hydrolysis , the myosin head to extend up and bind with the actin filament. The myosin head then releases after moving the actin filament in a relaxing or ...

Alcohol

... The formation of a secondary alcohol via the last two methods is shown: Industrial Fermentation : using glucose from the hydrolysis of starch , in the presence of yeast and temperature of <37C to produce ethanol. Direct hydration : using ethene or other alkenes from ...

Carbohydrate

... added, usually one on each carbon except the functional group. Other carbohydrates are composed of monosaccharide units, and break down under hydrolysis . These may be classified as disaccharides , oligosaccharides , or polysaccharides , depending on whether they have two, several, or many ...

Citric acid cycle

... dehydrogenase Oxidative decarboxylation NAD + + CoA-SH NADH + H + + CO 2 VI. Succinyl-CoA 6. Succinyl-CoA synthetase hydrolysis GDP + P i GTP + CoA-SH VII. Succinate 7. Succinate dehydrogenase Oxidation FAD FADH 2 VIII. Fumarate ...

Cell membrane

... against their electrochemical gradient , a process that would be entropically unfavorable were it not stoichiometrically coupled with the hydrolysis of ATP. This coupling can be either primary or secondary. In the primary active transport, transporters that move molecules against their ...

Citric acid cycle

... dehydrogenase Oxidative decarboxylation NAD + + CoA-SH NADH + H + + CO 2 VI. Succinyl-CoA 6. Succinyl-CoA synthetase hydrolysis GDP + P i GTP + CoA-SH VII. Succinate 7. Succinate dehydrogenase Oxidation FAD FADH 2 VIII. Fumarate ...

Metabolism

... few bacteria . Pentose phosphate pathway (hexose monophosphate shunt), generation of NADPH from glucose. Protein catabolism , the hydrolysis of proteins into amino acids . Aerobic respiration Electron transfer chain Oxidative phosphorylation Anaerobic ...

Actin

... filaments actin it forms Actomyosin , which provides the mechanism for muscle contraction. Actin uses ATP for energy. The ATP allows, through hydrolysis , the myosin head to extend up and bind with the actin filament. The myosin head then releases after moving the actin filament in a relaxing or ...

Origin of life

... absence of a reliable source of energy, these processes contradict the laws of thermodynamics (especially the increase of entropy). For one thing, hydrolysis is favored over condensation polymerization; for another, the Miller experiment produces many substances that would undergo cross-reactions with the ...

Pentose phosphate pathway

... group located on carbon 1 of glucose 6-phosphate is converted into a keto group, and in the process, NADPH is generated. The second step is the hydrolysis of 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone to 6-phosphogluconate , which is catalyzed by a lactonase . The third step is the oxidative ...

Peptide bond

... whole arrangement of the four C,O,N,H atoms as well as the two attached carbons in a peptide bond is planar. A peptide bond can be broken by amide hydrolysis (the adding of water). The peptide bonds in proteins are metastable , meaning that in the presence of water they will break spontaneously, ...

Cell membrane

... against their electrochemical gradient , a process that would be entropically unfavorable were it not stoichiometrically coupled with the hydrolysis of ATP. This coupling can be either primary or secondary. In the primary active transport, transporters that move molecules against their ...

RNA

... versatility and allows it to perform reactions that DNA is incapable of performing; but at the same time, it makes RNA sensitive to alkaline hydrolysis , to which DNA is not. The other major difference between RNA and DNA is that RNA is almost exclusively found in the single-stranded form (an ...
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