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Hydrogen in Biological Definition

Alcohol

... a carbon atom, which in turn is bound to other hydrogen and/or carbon atoms. The general formula for ... high pressure reaction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen . In common usage, "alcohol" often refers simply ... alcohol molecule polar . Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to other compounds. Two ...

Beta sheet

... but with alternating orientation such that hydrogen bonds can form between the two strands. The ... groups in the backbone of one strand establish hydrogen bonds with the C=O groups in the backbone of ... The cumulative effect of multiple such hydrogen bonds arranged in this way contributes to the ...

Blood

... Transport of carbon dioxide 3.4 Transport of hydrogen ions 4 Health and disease 4.1 ... carbon dioxide is converted to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions . Most carbon dioxide is transported ... the form of bicarbonate ions. Transport of hydrogen ions Some oxyhemoglobin loses oxygen and ...

Cellular respiration

... two molecules of 1,3 diphosphoglycerate. The hydrogen is used to oxidise two molecules of NAD, a hydrogen carrier, to give NADH+H + . NADH+H + later ... it yields 36 ATP molecules via the diffusion of hydrogen atoms through an ATP synthase, as well as carbon ...

Enzyme

... beta-lactamase resistant Catalase : converts hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water Chitinase : ... equivalents from cytochrome c and reduces hydrogen peroxide to water Deiodinase : activates ... peroxidase : protects cells by converting hydrogen peroxide to water Isomerase : all those ...

Redox

... dioxide, it could be the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane, or it could be the oxidation of ... . Another useful method is reductions involving hydrogen gas (H 2 ) with a palladium, platinium or nickel ... the addition of oxygen or the removing of hydrogen (hence the name oxidation), and smoke reduction ...

Purine

... , are purines. In DNA , these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary pyrimidines ... Adenine Guanine These hydrogen bonding modes are for classical Watson-Crick base pairing . Other hydrogen bonding modes are seen in both DNA and RNA . ...

Pyrimidine

... In DNA and RNA , these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary purines . ... Thymine Uracil Cytosine These hydrogen bonding modes are for classical Watson-Crick base pairing . Other hydrogen bonding modes are available in both DNA and ...

Redox

... dioxide, it could be the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane, or it could be the oxidation of ... . Another useful method is reductions involving hydrogen gas (H 2 ) with a palladium, platinium or nickel ... the addition of oxygen or the removing of hydrogen (hence the name oxidation), and smoke reduction ...

Secondary structure

... The secondary structure is assigned based on hydrogen bonding patterns as those initially proposed by ... helix (pi helix). Min length 5 residues. T = hydrogen bonded turn (3, 4 or 5 turn) E = beta sheet ... in isolated beta-bridge (single pair beta-sheet hydrogen bond formation) S = bend (the only ...

Amine

... group. Amines have structures resembling ammonia , where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl groups or other groups where the nitrogen is ... lone pairs also contribute to the solubility of simple amines due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules and the lone electron pairs. ...

Carbohydrate

... Fructose ( Fischer projection ) Pure carbohydrates contain carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen atoms , in a 1:2:1 molar ratio , giving the general ... bond. The binding between the two sugars results in the loss of a hydrogen atom (H) from one molecule and a hydroxyl group (OH) from the other. ...

DNA

... stay associated is determined by complementary pairing . Each base forms hydrogen bonds readily to only one other -- A to T and C to G -- so that the ... relevant to biology Strands association and dissociation The hydrogen bonds between the strands of the double helix are weak enough that they ...

Down syndrome

... ( SOD ) is elevated in Down syndrome. SOD converts oxygen radicals to hydrogen peroxide and water . Oxygen radicals produced in cells can be damaging ... increases disproportionately to enzymes responsible for removal of hydrogen peroxide (e.g., glutathione peroxidase ), the cells will suffer from a ...

Glucose

... aldoses . In this ring, each carbon is linked to hydroxyl and hydrogen side groups with the exception of the fifth atom, which links to a 6th ... carbon in the ring. The α form has the hydroxyl group "below" the hydrogen (as the molecule is conventionally drawn, as in the figure above), while ...

Hydrolysis

... of the parent molecule that was originally a carboxylate gains a hydrogen ion from the additional water molecule. The fragment that was ... group derived from the water. The amine product gains the remaining hydrogen ion. Hydrolysis can be considered as the opposite of condensation , in ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... MRI most frequently relies on the relaxation properties of excited hydrogen nuclei in water. When the object to be imaged is placed in a powerful, ... to the magnetic field, causing some of the magnetically aligned hydrogen nuclei to assume a temporary non-aligned high-energy state. The frequency ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... NAD + → NADH + H + + M: + energy, where M is a metabolite. Two hydrogen ions (a hydride ion and an H + ion) are transferred from the metabolite. Two electrons are transferred to the positively charged nitrogen, and one hydrogen attaches to the carbon atom opposite to the nitrogen. The human ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... NAD + → NADH + H + + M: + energy, where M is a metabolite. Two hydrogen ions (a hydride ion and an H + ion) are transferred from the metabolite. Two electrons are transferred to the positively charged nitrogen, and one hydrogen attaches to the carbon atom opposite to the nitrogen. The human ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... NAD + → NADH + H + + M: + energy, where M is a metabolite. Two hydrogen ions (a hydride ion and an H + ion) are transferred from the metabolite. Two electrons are transferred to the positively charged nitrogen, and one hydrogen attaches to the carbon atom opposite to the nitrogen. The human ...

Nephron

... filtrates, reabsorbing ions (such as sodium , potassium , calcium , hydrogen , bicarbonate , chloride , and ammonium ions ), solutes (such as ... (in addition to filtration and reabsorption) takes place: secretion. hydrogen and potassium ions are actively transported from the blood into ...

Photolysis

... is turned into chemical energy which is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen . The oxygen is released as a byproduct while the hydrogen binds with the coenzyme NADP to form NADPH . Photolysis is also a ...

Protein

... process of translation . The secondary structures are held together by hydrogen bonds . The tertiary structure is held together primarily by hydrophobic interactions but hydrogen bonds , ionic interactions, and disulfide bonds are usually involved ....

Activation energy

... energy is termed a catalyst ; a biological catalyst is termed an enzyme . Fig 1. The enthalpy profile of a reaction between two hydrogen peroxide molecules to form water and oxygen. The Transition State is the point at which the original bonds have been stretched as far as they can ...

Active site

... fit model whereby the active site binds and encloses the substrate molecule. Often enzymes bond to their substrate by Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonds between the R' groups in the amino acid monomers. ...

Alpha helix

... free space within the helix. All amino acid side-chains are arranged at the outside of the helix. The N-H group of amino acid (n) can establish a hydrogen bond with the C=O group of amino acid (n+4). Short polypeptides usually are not able to adopt the alpha helical structure, since the entropic ...

Amino acid

... 165.19 5.49 2.20 9.31 G Gly Glycine hydrophilic 75.07 6.06 2.35 9.78 Because of the two hydrogen atoms at the α carbon, glycine is not optically active . H His Histidine basic 155.16 7.60 1.80 9.33 6.04 ...

Autotroph

... Plants and other organisms using photosynthesis are photolithoautotrophs ; bacteria that utilize the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide or ferrous iron for energy conservation are chemolithoautotrophs . Autotrophs are a vital part of the food chain . They take energy ...

Cellulose

... linked together through 1,4 glycosidic bonds . Cellulose is a straight chain (no coiling occurs). In microfibrils , the multiple hydroxide groups hydrogen bond with each other, holding the chains firmly together and contributing to their high tensile strength. This strength is important in cell walls, ...

Collagen

... . Tropocollagen sub-units spontaneously arrange themselves under physiological conditions into staggered array structures stabilised by numerous hydrogen and covalent bonds. Tropocollagen sub-units are left-handed triple helices where each strand is, further, a right-handed helix itself. Thus, ...

Disulfide bond

... protective role for bacteria as a reversible switch that turns a protein on or off when bacterial cells are exposed to oxidation reactions. hydrogen peroxide ( H 2 O 2 ) in particular can severely damage DNA and kill the bacterium at low concentrations if it weren't for the protective ...

Double helix

... , and Cytosine , covalently linked through phosphodiester bonds . Each strand forms a helix, and the two helices are held together through hydrogen bonds , ionic forces, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals forces forming a double helix. ...

Gel electrophoresis

... with complex shapes and migrate through the gel in a complicated manner based on their tertiary structure. Therefore, agents that disrupt the hydrogen bonds , such as sodium hydroxide or formamide , are used to renature the nucleic acids and cause them to behave as long rods again. Proteins, on ...

Electron transfer chain

... generated to create ATP . Complex IV is the terminus of the electron transfer chain , where oxygen from the lungs is reduced by electrons and hydrogen protons (provided by NADH and/or FADH2 ) to make water . Cytochrome c Cytochrome c is also an essential part of the electron ...

Endosymbiotic theory

... articles Symbiogenesis Evolution of flagella (Discusses the endosymbiont theory of the evolution of flagella , and has more on Margulis) hydrogen hypothesis External links The Birth of Complex Cells - by Christian de Duve References Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, ...

FAD

... In biochemistry , flavin adenine dinucleotide ( FAD ) is the precursor molecule to FADH2 . Upon bonding to two hydrogen atoms, FAD is reduced to FADH2 and is turned into an energy-carrying molecule. This is used by organisms to carry out energy requiring processes. ...

Flagellum

... at the flagellum's anchor point on the inner cell membrane . The engine is powered by proton motive force , i.e., by the flow of protons (i.e., hydrogen ions ) across the bacterial cell membrane due to a concentration gradient set up by the cell's metabolism (in Vibrio species the motor is a ...

Gel electrophoresis

... with complex shapes and migrate through the gel in a complicated manner based on their tertiary structure. Therefore, agents that disrupt the hydrogen bonds , such as sodium hydroxide or formamide , are used to renature the nucleic acids and cause them to behave as long rods again. Proteins, on ...

Photosynthesis

... by C. B. van Neil in the 1930s, who studied photosynthetic bacteria. Aside from the cyanobacteria , they use reducing agents such as sulfide or hydrogen , so no oxygen is produced. Others, such as the halophiles (an Archeae) produced so called purple membranes where the bacterialrhodopsin could ...

Light-dependent reaction

... solar energy into chemical energy. Light absorbed by chlorophyll or other photosynthetic pigments is used to drive a transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water (or some other donor molecule) to an acceptor called NADP + , reducing it to the form of NADPH by adding a pair of electrons and a ...
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