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Human in Biological Definition

Adenosine triphosphate

... properties 2 Synthesis 3 ATP in the human body 4 Other triphosphates 4.1 ... and can generate up to 36 ATP. ATP in the human body The total quantity of ATP in the human body is about 0.1 mole . The energy used ...

Albinism

... This article is intended to cover mainly human albinism, although many of the features mentioned ... ultraviolet light coming from the sun (see human skin color for more information). People with ... pale blue, not pink like in some animals, and the human eye is too deep for the pupil to appear red ...

Anatomy

... female . Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopdie . Anatomy ... of anatomy include comparative anatomy and human anatomy . Animal anatomy may include the study ... important division of special anatomy, and this human anatomy may be approached from different points ...

Antibiotic

... use as an effective, safe antibiotic within the human body. The first effective antibiotic discovered ... flora, the "good bacteria" that dwell inside the human digestive system. Other side effects can result ... to attack a fungal cell which will not harm a human cell. Similarly, we know now that viruses ...

Apoptosis

... life cycle. For example, the differentiation of human fingers in the developing embryo requires the ... of the cell's genetic system carried out by human papillomaviruses (HPV), a gene called E6 is ... die each day due to apoptosis in the average human adult. In a year, this amounts to the ...

Avian influenza

... virus undergoes antigenic shift with a human influenza virus, the new subtype created could be ... to the point where it can be transmitted from human to human. It is at that point that a pandemic ... outbreak was contained by March, but the total human death toll in Vietnam and Thailand was 23 ...

Biodiversity

... contributed in many ways to the development of human culture, and, in turn, human communities have played a major role in shaping ... are important for ecosystem function and human survival. Research suggests that a more ...

Bioinformatics

... example, by Celera Genomics to sequence the human genome ) does not give a sequential list of ... for larger genomes. In the case of the human Genome Project , it took several months on a ... — Software Tools Directory Other human Genome Project and Bioinformatics ...

Bone

... . Gray's illustration of a human femur , a typically recognized bone. Bone ... is called osteology . Some illnesses afflict human bones, for example osteoporosis and cancer . ... Bone healing List of bones of the human skeleton Terms for anatomical location ...

BLAST

... typically will perform a BLAST search of the human genome to see if human beings carry a similar gene; BLAST will identify sequences in the human genome that resemble the mouse gene based on ...

Blood

... in blood between species. Humans human blood is a liquid tissue ; its major function is ... are about 4-6 liters of blood in an average human body, accounting for approximately 8% of body ... of blood per kilogram of body weight. human blood is red , ranging from bright red when ...

Brain

... (disambiguation) . For information about the human brain in specific, please see its article. ... have over one hundred billion neurons. The human brain is particularly complex and enlarged. ... is one of the two most important organs in the human body. Loss of function in this organ fufills some ...

Carolus Linnaeus

... struck him as common-sensical; for example, human beings are Homo sapiens (see sapience ), but he also described a second human species, Homo troglodytes ("cave-dwelling ... Academy of Sciences . Linnaeus is the only human being customarily referred to by a single ....

Cell growth

... can also use myelin to accomplish this, so most human neurons are releatively small. h Other ... gametes. In a diploid organism such as the human organism, most cells of the body have the haploid ... notation for counting chromosomes we say that human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes (2N = 46) ...

Charles Darwin

... Darwin considered Malthus's argument, that human populations breed beyond their means and compete ... , Wallace wrote to ask if it would delve into human origins. Sensitive to Lyell's fears on this, ... of man, but other writers failed to fully tackle human evolution. Opponents claimed that the beauty of ...

Chromosome

... in different species 5 Karyotype 6 human chromosome 7 Chromosomal aberrations 8 ... # of chromosomes Fruit fly 8 human 46 Rye 14 Ape 48 ... is formed. Figure 3 : Karyogram of human female Karyotype To determine the ...

Cloning

... 1 Species cloned 2 Health aspects 3 human cloning 4 Cloning extinct species 5 ... 2003) in France and North Korea independently. human -rabbit hybrid in China (August, 2003) mule : ... be developed to reverse aging in humans. human cloning Main article: ...

Bioinformatics

... example, by Celera Genomics to sequence the human genome ) does not give a sequential list of ... for larger genomes. In the case of the human Genome Project , it took several months on a ... — Software Tools Directory Other human Genome Project and Bioinformatics ...

Culture

... for understanding, or criteria for valuing, human activity. Sir Edward B. Tylor wrote in 1871 ... to cultivation: the progressive refinement of human behavior. Arnold consistently uses the word this ... elements of high culture for repressing " human nature ". Some social critics, from the 18th ...

Down syndrome

... on chromosomes 16 that are very similar to the human chromosome 21 genes. With this animal model , ... Down Syndrome stress that they have the same human rights and emotions as any other human being. The abuse and forcible ...

Escherichia coli

... E. coli bacteria in the feces that one human passes in one day averages 10 11 (= one with ... pollution level of water, meaning the amount of human fecal matter in it. The main reasons for using ... coli are that there are a lot more coliforms in human feces than there are pathogens (such as ...

Ebola

... be spread through the air, but did not cause any human fatalities; although four men did test positive ... ). A new subtype was identified from a single human case in the Cte d'Ivoire in 1994 , ... A graphical representation of known human cases and deaths during outbreaks of Ebola ...

Enzyme

... that leads to mental retardation. Enzymes in the human body can also be influenced by inhibitors. ... : breaks down alcohols to aldehydes in human liver; creates alcohol in yeast fermentation ... : breaks starch into maltose , present in human saliva and also released by the pancreas ...

Eugenics

... a "science") which advocates the manipulation of human reproduction for the purposes of attempting to improve the human species over generations in regards to ... early as the time of Plato , who believed that human reproduction should be controlled by authorities. ...

Evolution

... though they have a clear purpose in others. The human wisdom teeth and appendix are common ... phylogenetically distant. For example, neutral human DNA sequences are approximately 1.2% divergent ... of the homozygous forms (famously exemplified by human sickle cell anemia conferring resistance to ...

Experimental evolution

... 1 Evolution experiments throughout human history 2 Early experimental evolution ... Evolution experiments throughout human history Unwittingly, humans have carried out ... number of different dog breeds. The power of human breeding to create varieties with extreme ...

Extinction

... concerned with the extinction of species due to human intervention, and are attempting to combat ... can be attributed directly or indirectly to human effects. Endangered species are species that ... 3 Effects 4 Mass extinctions 5 human extinction ...

Eye

... other usages. Diagram of a human eye. Note that not all eyes have the same anatomy as a human eye. An eye is an organ that detects ... Uveitis See also The human eye is sometimes metaphorically called "the ...

Fungus

... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 human consumption 2 Structure 3 Reproduction ... 7 References 8 External links human consumption Some fungi are popular as food : ... When fungi do pass the resistance barriers of the human body and establish infections, the infections are ...

Gene

... biotechnology and the project to sequence the human genome , the common usage of the word "gene" has ... Properties of genes 1.2 Types of genes 1.3 human gene nomenclature 1.4 Typical numbers of genes ... the expense of their host organism's welfare. A human that behaved in such a way would be described as ...

Gene therapy

... in molecular biology had already enabled human genes to be sequenced and cloned . Scientists ... — insulin, investigated introducing human genes to bacterial DNA. The modified bacteria ... step of trying to introduce genes straight into human cells, focusing on diseases caused by single-gene ...

Genetics

... the easy amplification of DNA 1989 The first human gene is sequenced by Francis Collins and ... is released 2001 First draft sequences of the human genome are released simultaneously by the human Genome Project and Celera Genomics . 2003 ( ...

Genomics

... sequenced at a rapid pace. A rough draft of the human genome was completed by the human Genome Project in early 2001 amid much ... Species Similarity Source human 99.9% quoted by President Clinton, Jan 2000, ...

Homeostasis

... homeostasis 3.1 Homeostasis in the human body 4 Other fields 4.1 Examples ... stop functioning. Complex systems , such as a human body, must have homeostasis to maintain stability ... when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the human body increases, the lungs are signalled to ...

Homunculus

... . He once claimed that he had created a false human being that he referred to as the homunculus. The ... to the ground, and its roots vaguley resemble a human form to varying degrees. The root was to be ... whereupon it would fully develop into a miniature human which would guard and protect its owner. Yet a ...

Human

... of the last 30,000 years. For other uses, see human (disambiguation) . ... (extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens human beings define themselves in biological, social, ... language , and introspection . Behaviorally, human beings are defined by their use of language ; ...

Hormone

... nearly every organ system and tissue type in a human or animal body. Hormone molecules are secreted ... of hormones 3 Pharmacology 4 Important human hormones 5 Spelling note 6 See also ... to suppress inflammation. Important human hormones Amine-derived hormones : ...

Human Genome Project

... The human Genome Project (HGP) endeavored to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair ) ... and a subsequent detailed description of the human Genome Initiative in a report that led to the ...

Immune system

... organisms' immune systems, particularly the human immune system. Contents ... immune systems 3 Disorders of the human immune system 4 Further reading 5 See ... non-self is a difficult problem, and a variety of human disorders arise from failures of discriminatory ...

Insulin

... Pig insulin is particularly close to the human one. Contents ... to as a polypeptide . Beef insulin differs from human insulin in two amino acid residues, and pork ... one residue. Fish insulin is also close enough to human insulin to be effective. In humans, insulin has a ...
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