... One of these species is allowed to flow from high
to low concentration, which yields the entropic ... other solute from a low concentration region to a high
one. An example is the sodium-calcium exchanger ... also uses the flow of one solute species from high
to low concentration to move another molecule ...
... tissue, especially those tissues that have a high
replacement rate (e.g. intestinal lining). These ... more or less at random. Cells that divide at a high
rate, such as epithelials , show a higher risk ... mutations or polymorphisms that put them at high
risk of cancer. Meanwhile, genetic testing for ...
... metal ion affinity chromatography
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
... is increased to produce later fractions.
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
Modern HPLC systems are highly automated
performance liquid chromatography , frequently ...
... goods and activities such as haute cuisine , high
fashion or haute couture , museum -caliber ... often defended (or criticized) elements of high
culture for repressing " human nature ".
Some ... by, non-elite people or the masses . Both high
and low cultures can be viewed as subcultures .
... maintaining a stable body weight, controlling high
blood pressure and having regular exercise .
... liver and muscles. The net effect is persistent high
levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, ... because of osmotic effects — sufficiently high
glucose (above the ' renal threshold ') in the ...
... arise through cell metabolism malfunction, and high
energy levels can promote health through frequent ... may be added or produced through processing and high
temperature cooking. Also processing can replace ... on the choice of lifestyle. Athletes may need high
levels of protein and energy to ...
... of low solute concentration to a region of high
solute concentration. The semipermeable membrane ... can be seen in red blood cells. These contain a high
concentration of solutes including salts and ... in solution, water rushes in to the area of high
solute concentration, bursting the cell.
Polymerase chain reaction
... from these organisms is thermostable (stable at high
temperatures) and, when used in PCR, did not ... Pfu are available nowadays that provide both high
fidelity and accurate amplification of DNA.
... PCR product in low concentration (lane 2), and high
concentration (lane 3). Image published with ...
... of the temperature of the latter. Those animals high
in the scale of evolution, as birds and mammals, have a high
temperature almost constant and independent of ... Because the extremities are not insulated well, high
temperature in feet and hooves is hard to ...
... "wood alcohol". It is now a cheap commodity chemical produced by the high
pressure reaction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen . In common usage, ... of distilled crude oil . Uses a catalyst of phosphoric acid under high
temperature and pressure.
Methanol is manufactured from synthesis ...
... are all in the gamma region. In some disease states ( myeloma ) a very high
concentration of one particular immunoglobulin will show up as a ... as a secretory immunoglobulin. Due to its polymeric nature, IgM possesses high
avidity, and is particularly effective at complement activation. It is ...
... itself or to recover from damage or disturbance. Just like a species with high
genetic diversity , an ecosystem with high
biodiversity may have a greater chance of adapting to environmental ...
... muscle can develop a sustained condition known as tetany through high
frequency stimulation, resulting in overlapping twitches and a phenomenon known as wave summation. At a sufficiently high
frequency, tetany occurs, and the contracticle force appears constant ...
... chemical arrangement termed calcium hydroxyapatite), which has relatively high
compressive strength though poor tensile strength . While bone is ... Cancellous bone is trabecular (honeycomb structure), it has a relatively high
surface area, but forms a smaller portion of the skeleton.
Bone can also ...
C4 carbon fixation
... possessing the more common C3 pathway under the conditions of drought, high
temperatures and nitrogen limitation. The C 4 cycle allows for a spacial ... process in which organic material and energy is lost from the plant due to high
concentrations of oxygen. It is called "C 4 " because the product, ...
... view was that the energy of electron transfer was stored as a stable high
potential intermediate, a chemically more conservative concept.
The problem with the older paradigm is that no high
energy intermediate was ever found, and the evidence for proton pumping by ...
... the fluid are all that is needed. The main consideration is the very high
potential for infection with an open catheter; peritonitis is a common ... to an arm or leg vein to make it more robust, and therefore usable for high
capacity blood movement required by dialysis) this means inserting two ...
When photons travel through a material with a high
optical depth and a very short mean free path , their behavior is ... results in transport down the gradient -- i.e. things move from regions of high
concentration to low concentration. However, this is not always the case: ...
... Man, like every other animal, has no doubt advanced to his present high
condition through a struggle for existence consequent on his rapid ... interests (promoting "healthy marriages" between "fit" couples).
school and college textbooks from the 1920s through the 1940s frequently ...
... opens a path to a new, higher fitness peak. Note, however, that at high
mutation rates this picture is somewhat simplistic. A population may not ... truck), which is called the fitness function or fitness landscape . A high
f(s) implies that s is a good solution. In the case of the delivery ...
... prevalence areas, the disease is predominantly spread among children. In high
prevalence countries, such as China, vertical transmission is most common. ... the infection to her offspring at the time of birth. This risk is as high
as 90% if the mother is also positive for the Hepatitis B e antigen.
... blood. This is the clinical action of insulin which is useful in reducing high
blood glucose levels in diabetes.
increased fatty acid synthesis ... glucose levels (ie, on average, both over days and weeks, and avoiding too high
peaks after meals) the rate of diabetic complications goes down. If ...
... Azotemia is a toxic condition characterized by abnormal and dangerously high
levels of urea, creatinine, various body waste compounds, and other ... of the nephrotic syndrome include swelling, low serum albumin, and high
Renal cell carcinoma
... milk. When the child is weaned, if the diet that replaces the milk is high
in starches and carbohydrates , and deficient in protein (as is common ... adding food energy and protein to the diet; however, mortality can be as high
as 60% and it can have a long-term impact on a child's physical growth ...
... the sole vegetation in some extreme environments such as found at high
mountain elevations and at high
latitudes. Some survive in the tough conditions of deserts, and others on ...
... A macromolecule is a molecule of high
relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the ... will denature if the solute concentration of their solution is too high
or too low.
According to IUPAC recommendations the term macromolecule ...
... The hypervariability arises because the repeated simple sequences cause a high
frequency of loss or insertion of additional repeats by confusing the DNA ... may be damaged, microsatellites may be gained or lost at an especially high
frequency during each round of mitosis . Hence a tumour cell line might ...
... factors, are available to help express the protein of interest at high
levels. Large quantities of a protein can then be extracted from the ... is then eluted from the matrix, usually by adding a solution with a high
salt concentration, or by varying the pH of the solution in which the ...
Magnetic resonance imaging
... injury, or failure of an implanted device.
As a result of the very high
strength of the magnetic field needed to produce scans (frequently up to ... of current research. The BOLD effect also allows for the generation of high
resolution 3D maps of the venous vasculature within neural tissue.
... occur when a virus bypasses infection control measures and a relatively high
number of infections are observed where no cases or sporadic cases ... (regular cases often occurring in a region), epidemic (an unusually high
number of cases in a region), or pandemic (a global epidemic).
A photon is usually given the symbol γ ( gamma ), although in high
energy physics this refers to a high
energy photon (a gamma ray ; a photon of the immediately lower energy ...
... Steiner remains unknown by many and rejected by others.
regard in which Steiner is held within the Anthroposopical movement, which ... significantly higher than German public school graduates on the Abitur, a high
school graduate exam widely administered in Germany. The significance of ...
... influence of Malthus's theory of population was very great. Previously, high
fertility had been considered an economic plus since it increased the ... from a new perspective and convinced most economists that even though high
fertility might increase the gross output it tended to reduce output per ...
... utilises high-dispersion diffraction gratings to observe spectra at very high
spectral resolutions. The first exoplanets to be discovered were found by analysing the doppler shift of stars at such high
resolution that variations in their radial velocity as small as a few ...
... was the most famous resident of the Parc Zoolgic de Barcelona .
Cats can carry genetic albinism, resulting in white fur and blue eyes. A high
percentage of albino cats are also deaf.
Albino frogs and fish are found in the wild, and can sometimes be found for sale in pet shops. The lack of ...
... distinctive habitats. Microscopic forms, called phytoplankton , provide the food base for marine food chains . Phytoplankton can be present in high
densities, called algal blooms , which might be visible as a discoloration of the water. Some algae, especially the seaweeds, are used as human ...
... resisted at least one antibiotic. In certain settings, such as hospitals and some child-care locations, the rate of antibiotic resistance is so high
that the normal, low cost antibiotics are virtually useless for treatment of frequently seen infections. This leads to more frequent use of newer and ...
... T cells, are committed to programmed cell death. The survivors are tested as well for potentially damaging autoimmune reactions, and those that show high
affinity to healthy self antigen are killed via apoptosis.
Be aware that the above paragraphs present a highly simplified picture: the actual ...
... on rRNA data, showing the separation of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.
Many archaeans are extremophiles . Some live at very high
temperatures, often above 100°C, as found in geysers and black smokers . Others are found in very cold habitats or in highly saline , ...
... preferred direction of movement—that is, from the side of the membrane where they are in low concentration to the side where they are in high
concentration. This process is considered active transport .
The ATP synthetase (or ATP synthase ) of mitochondria and ...