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Helix in Biological Definition

Alpha helix

... In proteins , the α helix is a major structural motif in secondary ... peptide bonds . The amino acids in an α helix are arranged in a helical structure, about 5 ... a translation of 1.5 along the helical axis. The helix is tightly packed; there is almost no free space ...

DNA

... Great length versus tiny breadth 6.4 Different helix geometries 6.4.1 Supercoiled DNA 6.4.2 ... which entwine like vines to form a double helix (see the illustration at the right). Each ... hydrogen bonds between the strands of the double helix are weak enough that they can be easily separated ...

James D. Watson

... Wilkins , they together deduced the double helix structure of DNA, which they published in the ... in 1962 . In 1968 Watson wrote The Double helix , one of the Modern Library 's 100 best ... surrounding their work. The Double helix changed the way the public viewed scientists and ...

Secondary structure

... been experimentally determined). G = 3-turn helix (3_10 helix). Min length 3 residues. H = 4-turn helix ( alpha helix ). Min length 4 residues. I = ...

Beta sheet

... one or more prolines . See also : tertiary structure -- α helix -- collagen helix ...

Collagen

... left-handed triple helices where each strand is, further, a right-handed helix itself. Thus, tropocollagen may be considered to be a coiled coil. ... by forming covalent bonds. The resulting structure is called a collagen helix . Types of collagen Collagen occurs in many places throughout the ...

Genetic recombination

... from its complementary strand and anneal to one strand of the double helix on the opposite chromatid. A second nick allows the unannealed strand in the second double helix to pull apart and anneal to the remaining strand in the first, forming a ...

Primer

... Δ H is the enthalpy of base stacking interactions adjusted for helix initiation factors Δ S is the entropy of base stacking adjusted for helix initiation factors and for the contributions of salts to the entropy ...

Transmembrane protein

... face. Many transmembrane proteins have multiple membrane spanning alpha helix segments which anchors them to the membrane. Most transmembrane proteins ... Integrin Cadherin See also : membrane topology , transmembrane helix , membrane protein ...

Actin

... proteins dictate the formation of either structure since they cross-link actin filaments. Actin filaments have the appearance of a double-stranded helix . Bundles There are two types of actin bundles: parallel and contractile bundles. In parallel bundles, the filaments are spaced 14 nm apart ...

Amino acid

... 8.72 P Pro Proline hydrophobic 115.13 6.30 1.95 10.64 Can disrupt protein folding structures like α helix or β sheet . Q Gln Glutamine hydrophilic 146.15 5.65 2.17 9.13 R Arg Arginine basic ...

Convergent evolution

... be contrasted with homologous structures which have a common origin. Another example is the aerial rootlets found in English ivy ( Hedera helix ) and wintercreeper ( Euonymus fortunei ) (and other vines ). These rootlets are not derived from a common ancestor, but developed independently ...

Double helix

... The term Double helix ( plural helices) describes the structure of DNA as first published by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953. They showed that DNA is made ...

Francis Crick

... The book also formed the basis of the award winning television dramatisation Life Story by BBC Horizon (also broadcast as Race for the Double helix ). Francis Crick and James Watson: Pioneers in DNA Research by John Bankston, Francis Crick and James D. Watson (Mitchell Lane Publishers, ...

Flagellum

... and is a hollow tube 20 nanometers thick. It is helical, and has a sharp bend just outside the outer membrane called the "hook" which allows the helix to point directly away from the cell. A shaft runs between the hook and the basal body, passing through protein rings in the cell's membranes that ...

Genetics

... experiment proves the genetic information of phages (and all other organisms) to be DNA 1953 DNA structure is resolved to be a double helix by James D. Watson and Francis Crick 1956 Jo Hin Tjio and Albert Levan established the correct chromosome number in humans to be 46 ...

Convergent evolution

... be contrasted with homologous structures which have a common origin. Another example is the aerial rootlets found in English ivy ( Hedera helix ) and wintercreeper ( Euonymus fortunei ) (and other vines ). These rootlets are not derived from a common ancestor, but developed independently ...

Actin

... proteins dictate the formation of either structure since they cross-link actin filaments. Actin filaments have the appearance of a double-stranded helix . Bundles There are two types of actin bundles: parallel and contractile bundles. In parallel bundles, the filaments are spaced 14 nm apart ...

Protein

... a protein's structure: Primary structure : the amino acid sequence Secondary structure : highly patterned sub-structures— alpha helix and beta sheet —or segments of chain that assume no stable shape . Secondary structures are locally defined, meaning that there can be many ...

Restriction enzyme

... ) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA . The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the phosphate backbones of the double helix without damaging the bases . The chemical bonds that the enzymes cleave can be reformed by other enzymes known as ligases , so that restriction ...

RNA

... synthesis begins when the enzyme binds to special promoter regions on the DNA helix; these regions mark the beginning of a gene. The DNA double helix is unwound by the helicase activity of the enzyme. RNA is then synthesised so that it is complementary to one of strands in the DNA . The strand ...

Tobacco mosaic virus

... a rod-like appearance. Its capsid is made from a single protein that assembles itself around the viral RNA in a helical structure (16.3 proteins per helix turn). The virions have a diameter ~18nm and an inner hole ~2nm. The protein coat consists of 158 aminoacids which are assembled into four main ...

Tobacco mosaic virus

... a rod-like appearance. Its capsid is made from a single protein that assembles itself around the viral RNA in a helical structure (16.3 proteins per helix turn). The virions have a diameter ~18nm and an inner hole ~2nm. The protein coat consists of 158 aminoacids which are assembled into four main ...

Virus

... binds directly to the viral genome, for example, in the case of the measles virus, one nucleocapsid protein binds every six bases of RNA to form a helix approximately 1.3 micrometres in length. This complex of protein and nucleic acid is called the nucleocapsid, and, in the case of measles virus, ...
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