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Groups in Biological Definition

Alcohol

... a propane chain with methyl and hydroxyl groups both attached to the middle (#2) carbon. An alcohol with two hydroxyl groups is commonly called a "glycol", e.g. HO-CH 2 -CH 2 ... makes the alcohol molecule polar . Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to ...

Alga

... (singular is alga ) comprise several different groups of living things that produce energy through ... 1 Relationships among algal groups 1.1 Prokaryotic algae 1.2 Eukaryotic ... links Relationships among algal groups Prokaryotic algae Traditionally the ...

Amine

... or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl groups or other groups where the nitrogen is bonded to a carbon atom in ... tertiary amine . Note: the subscripts on the R groups are simply used to label ...

Animal

... evolutionary relationships, and so these groups have been restricted somewhat. For instance, ... 1 Structure 2 groups of animals 2.1 Deuterostomes 2.2 ... gap junctions, and desmosomes. groups of animals The sponges (Porifera) diverged ...

Archaea

... on 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees . These two groups were originally named the Archaebacteria and ... branches of living things. He later renamed the groups Archaea and Bacteria to emphasize this, and ... Archaea are divided into two main groups based on rRNA trees, the Euryarchaeota and ...

Artificial life

... researchers have often been divided into two main groups (although other groupings are possible): ... on logic. The Michigan group was one of the few groups still interested in alife and CAs in the early ... to create recognizable flocking behaviour in groups of computer-drawn " boids " in 1987. With no ...

Biology

... adapting to change 1.6 Interactions: groups and environments 2 Scope of biology ... although they may place some early-branching groups very differently, presumably owing to rapid rRNA ... and taxonomy . Taxonomy puts organisms in groups called taxa , while systematics seeks their ...

Bacterium

... 3 Metabolisms 4 Movement 5 groups and identification 6 Benefits and dangers ... In 1977, Woese divided the prokaryotes into two groups based on 16S rRNA sequences, called the ... may differentiate to form fruiting bodies. groups and identification Bacteria come in a ...

Cladistics

... relationships. In contrast, phenetics groups organisms based on their overall similarity, ... of a split are called sister taxa or sister groups . Each subtree, whether it only contains one item ... other evolutionary taxonomists insist that groups reflect phylogenies and often make use of ...

DNA

... to face the helical axis, the sugar and phosphate groups of the nucleotides run along the outside; the two ... the structure of DNA In the 1950s , only a few groups made it their goal to determine the structure of ... an American group led by Linus Pauling , and two groups in Britain. At the University of Cambridge , ...

Bacterium

... 3 Metabolisms 4 Movement 5 groups and identification 6 Benefits and dangers ... In 1977, Woese divided the prokaryotes into two groups based on 16S rRNA sequences, called the ... may differentiate to form fruiting bodies. groups and identification Bacteria come in a ...

Eukaryote

... mostly multicellular, as well as various other groups called protists , many of which are unicellular. ... and mitosomes . Plants and various groups of algae also have plastids . Again, these ... had a single origin, not all plastid-containing groups are closely related. Instead, some eukaryotes ...

Human

... (Boyd and Silk 2003:389-399). Some religious groups object to the theory of evolution : see ... Although many species are social , forming groups based on genetic ties, affection, self-defense, ... with a small group of equals, resulting in peer groups of individuals of similar age, typically of the ...

Lipid

... alcohol). In the case of phospholipids, the polar groups are considerably larger and more polar, as ... fatty acids). The chains are usually 14-24 carbon groups long. The head groups of the phospholipids found in ...

Long-term potentiation

... [20] . He tested the spatial memory of two groups of rats, one whose hippocampi were bathed in the ... observed, is required for spatial learning.) Both groups were then subjected to the Morris water maze , ... slices of the hippocampus were taken from both groups of rats, LTP was easily induced in controls, but ...

Animal

... evolutionary relationships, and so these groups have been restricted somewhat. For instance, ... 1 Structure 2 groups of animals 2.1 Deuterostomes 2.2 ... gap junctions, and desmosomes. groups of animals The sponges (Porifera) diverged ...

Paraphyletic

... recent common ancestor of all group members. groups which include all the descendants of the most ... former is more common, but sometimes paraphyletic groups are also considered monophyletic, in which case ... because that class does not include two groups of its descendants, birds (in class Aves , ...

Alga

... (singular is alga ) comprise several different groups of living things that produce energy through ... 1 Relationships among algal groups 1.1 Prokaryotic algae 1.2 Eukaryotic ... links Relationships among algal groups Prokaryotic algae Traditionally the ...

Plant

... unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, ... Pteridosperms (seed ferns) and Cordaites, both groups now extinct, appeared in the late Devonian and ... landing directly on the embryo. Four surviving groups remain widespread now, particularly the conifers ...

Plant

... unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, ... Pteridosperms (seed ferns) and Cordaites, both groups now extinct, appeared in the late Devonian and ... landing directly on the embryo. Four surviving groups remain widespread now, particularly the conifers ...

Protist

... the ciliates and water moulds, the traditional groups are polyphyletic and frequently overlap. Newer systems attempt to provide monophyletic groups based on ultrastructure , chemistry, and genetic ... begun to emerge, and there are still many groups whose placement is uncertain. An incomplete ...

Protist

... the ciliates and water moulds, the traditional groups are polyphyletic and frequently overlap. Newer systems attempt to provide monophyletic groups based on ultrastructure , chemistry, and genetic ... begun to emerge, and there are still many groups whose placement is uncertain. An incomplete ...

Blood type

... ABO and Rh. Blood transfusions from incompatible groups can cause an immunological transfusion reaction , ... red blood cells. Inheritance ABO Blood groups are inherited from both parents. The ABO blood ... donors. Individuals with Bombay phenotype blood groups can only be transfused with blood from other ...

Sociobiology

... genetic evolution appears to act on social groups . The mechanisms responsible for selection in groups are statistical and can be harder to grasp than ... in most mammalian species, because racial groups within mammalian species (such as moose , rats ...

Species

... do not know whether two morphologically similar groups of organisms are "potentially" capable of ... profound. From a taxonomical point of view, groups within a species can be defined as being of a ... to observe reproductive isolation in allopatric groups directly. Often it is not possible to achieve ...

Stem cell

... human being. In the U.S., many Christian groups (such as Fundamentalists , Catholics , and ... treatments are being financed by private research groups such as pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. These are the groups that have financed all of the medical treatments ...

Beta sheet

... acid chain is almost fully extended throughout a β strand. The N-H groups in the backbone of one strand establish hydrogen bonds with the C=O groups in the backbone of the adjacent, parallel strand(s). The cumulative ...

Carbohydrate

... are small straight-chain aldehydes and ketones with many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon except the functional group. Other ... enough in many cases. The increase in protein means that more ammonia groups need to be removed from the blood. Catabolism There are three ...

Carolus Linnaeus

... phyla (singular: phylum) or divisions between kingdoms and classes. groups of organisms at any rank are now called taxa (singular: taxon) or taxonomic groups . His groupings were based upon shared physical characteristics. ...

Culture

... and values , but rather only a single standard of refinement to which all groups are held accountable. Thus people with different customs from someone who ... anthropologists focus on symbolic culture, although ultimately both groups maintain interests in the relationship between these two dimensions. ...

Glucose

... . In this ring, each carbon is linked to hydroxyl and hydrogen side groups with the exception of the fifth atom, which links to a 6th carbon atom ... to other hexose sugars, to nonspecifically react with the amino groups of proteins . This reaction ( glycosylation ) reduces or destroys the ...

Monophyletic

... the genus would be polyphyletic. Since biologists by and large prefer groups to be monophyletic, in this case they would likely either split the genus ... evolutionary taxonomists use the term holophyletic for the sort of groups discussed here, whereby monophyly includes both holophyly and ...

Polysaccharide

... polysaccharides are a group of polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups and/or sulfuric ester groups . ...

Prokaryote

... so great that it is considered to be the most important distinction among groups of organisms. Most prokaryotes are bacteria , and the two terms are ... prokaryotes are nearly always unicelluar, some are capable of forming groups of cells called colonies . Unlike many eukaryotic multicellular ...

Coenzyme A

... triphosphate and used in metabolism in areas such as fatty acid oxidization and the citric acid cycle . Its main function is to carry acyl groups such as acetyl as thioesters . A molecule of coenzyme A carrying an acetyl group is also referred to as acetyl-CoA . Acetyl-CoA is an important ...

Active site

... site binds and encloses the substrate molecule. Often enzymes bond to their substrate by Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonds between the R' groups in the amino acid monomers. ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... C 10 H 16 N 5 O 13 P 3 , and the chemical formula C 10 H 8 N 4 O 2 NH 2 (OH) 2 (PO 3 H) 3 H, with a molecular mass of 507.184 u . The phosphoryl groups starting with that on AMP are referred to as the alpha, beta, and gamma phosphates. The biochemical name for ATP is ...

Amino acid

... In chemistry , an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups . In biochemistry , this shorter and more general term is frequently used to refer to alpha amino acids: those amino acids in which the amino and ...

Autotroph

... and organic building blocks obtained from their prey comes ultimately from the autotrophs eaten by the prey. See also Primary nutritional groups ...

Bone

... (manufactured by osteoblasts). Mineralisation involves osteoblasts secreting vesicles containing alkaline phosphatase. This cleaves phosphate groups and acts as the foci for calcium and phosphate deposition. The vesicles then rupture and act as a centre for crystals to grow on. The organic part ...
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