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Group in Biological Definition

Coenzyme A

... . A molecule of coenzyme A carrying an acetyl group is also referred to as acetyl-CoA . Acetyl-CoA ... Furthermore, it contributes the acetyl group to acetylcholine ; the addition of the acetyl group to choline a reaction that is catalysed by ...

Alcohol

... to any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group ( - O H ) is bound to a carbon atom, which ... Structure The functional group of an alcohol is a hydroxyl group bonded to an sp 3 hybridized carbon. It can ...

Amine

... the nitrogen is bonded to a carbon atom in the group (groups symbolized by R below). However, if ... above reactions can also be some other leaving group forming a corresponding acid or anion. ... possible, the nitrogen in the amine functional group will usually not be a chiral center. The ...

Artificial life

... and exploit other planets and moons, and a NASA group called the Self-Replicating Systems Concept Team ... after his death), headed the Logic of Computers group at the University of Michigan . He brought the ... workings were based on logic. The Michigan group was one of the few groups still interested in ...

Biology

... parent and offspring. Ethology considers group behavior of more than one individual. Population ... of life Main article: Common descent A group of organisms is said to have common descent if ... four broad groupings here. The first broad group consists of disciplines that study the basic ...

Bacterium

... Bacteria (singular, bacterium ) are a major group of living organisms . They are microscopic and ... applied to all prokaryotes or to a major group of them, depending on ideas about their ... cyanobacteria , which were considered a group of algae (called Cyanophyta or blue-green ...

Carbohydrate

... divided into aldoses , which have an aldehyde group on the first carbon atom, and ketoses , which typically have a ketone group on the second. They may also be divided into ... each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is optically ...

Cladistics

... modern systems of classification, which seek to group organisms by evolutionary relationships. In ... off toward the bottom, or below the other group in question. Conversely, one clade or species ... seems to be posessed by the common ancestor of a group is described as ancestral , and one that evolved ...

Culture

... and emotional features of society or a social group and that it encompasses, in addition to art and ... of culture as "worldview." That is, each ethnic group is characterized by a distinct and ... of different cultures can easily spread from one group of people to another. Culture is dynamic and can ...

Disulfide bond

... particular side chain involved is the sulfhydryl group (- S H ). Oxidation of the thiol group yields a disulfide (S-S) bond. The presence of ... formation of a disulfide bond. The R on each side group represents the remainder of the amino acid. ...

Morphogenesis

... axis of the developing embryo. The Antennapedia group of homeotic selector genes includes labial , ... the properties of thoracic segments. The bithorax group of homeotic selector genes control the ... of a body structure within a taxonomic group . Morphogenetic responses may be induced in ...

Enzyme

... EC 2 Transferases : transfer a functional group (e.g., a methyl or phosphate group) EC 3 ... Lyases : all those enzymes that can eliminate a group from a molecule to form a double bond and vice ... production of polyamines Peroxidase : the group of enzymes that can convert hydrogen peroxide ...

Bacterium

... Bacteria (singular, bacterium ) are a major group of living organisms . They are microscopic and ... applied to all prokaryotes or to a major group of them, depending on ideas about their ... cyanobacteria , which were considered a group of algae (called Cyanophyta or blue-green ...

Fungus

... Fungi (singular: fungus ) are a major group of living things, originally considered plants ... which are generally considered the most primitive group of fungi, do not form hyphae and instead grow ... among the ascomycetes, and the Microsporidia , a group of reduced parasites whose relationships to the ...

Glucose

... they differ in the orientation of the hydroxyl group linked to the first carbon in the ring. The α form has the hydroxyl group "below" the hydrogen (as the molecule is ... above), while the β form has the hydroxyl group "above" the hydrogen. These two forms ...

Human

... souls are exclusively human, or that there are group souls held by the community of animals. Others ... that they form, both for individual and group survival and for the preservation and development of technology and knowledge . group identity and acceptance can exert a powerful ...

Hydrolysis

... product contains a hydroxyl functional group , while the other contains a carboxylic acid ... The fragment that was originally an alkyl group collects the remaining hydroxyl group from the water molecule. Thus the ester is ...

Immune system

... spleen and submucosal lymphoid nodules) and the group motile cells that are involved in the body's ... that are unique to every individual. T cells, a group that encompasses cytotoxic T lymphocytes ( CTLs ... The complement system is a very complex group of serum proteins which is activated in a ...

Lipid

... of a Lipid. Many lipids consists of a polar head group ( P ) and a nonpolar tail ( U for unpolar). The ... In the case of cholesterol , the polar group is a mere -OH ( hydroxyl or alcohol). In the ... "tails" by ester linkages and one "head" group by a phosphate ester linkage. Fatty acids are ...

Monophyletic

... In phylogenetics , a group is monophyletic ( Greek : of one stem ) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ... that form are included in the group. A taxonomic group that contain organisms but not their common ...

Morphogenesis

... axis of the developing embryo. The Antennapedia group of homeotic selector genes includes labial , ... the properties of thoracic segments. The bithorax group of homeotic selector genes control the ... of a body structure within a taxonomic group . Morphogenetic responses may be induced in ...

Paraphyletic

... and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor , but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. Groups which include all the ...

Phospholipid

... In phosphoglycerides, the carboxyl group of each fatty acid is esterified to the hydroxyl groups on carbon-1 and carbon-2. The phosphate group is attached to carbon-3 by an ester link. This ... Subsequent substitution of the terminal hydroxyl group by phosphatidyl choline forms sphingomyelin. ...

Phosphorylation

... is the addition of a phosphate (PO 4 ) group to a protein or a small molecule. Its prominent ... mitochondrion by addition of a third phosphate group to ADP in a process referred to as oxidative ... cells to accumulate sugars because the phosphate group prevents the molecules from diffusing back across ...

Plant

... - flowering plants Plants are a major group of living things (about 300,000 species), ... the flowering plants , were the last major group of plants to appear, emerging from within the ... protective seed coat; they are the predominant group of flora in most biomes today. Algae and ...

Plant

... - flowering plants Plants are a major group of living things (about 300,000 species), ... the flowering plants , were the last major group of plants to appear, emerging from within the ... protective seed coat; they are the predominant group of flora in most biomes today. Algae and ...

Blood type

... although in some areas, such as Norway , the A group dominates. The A antigen is overall more common ... recessive alleles of the H gene, (their blood group is O h and their genotype is "hh"), and so do ... group, not even O -ve or O +ve. When this Blood group was first encountered, it was found not to be of ...

Species

... biology , a species is, loosely speaking, a group of related organisms that share a more or less ... exist: A morphological species is a group of organisms that have a distinctive form: for ... A mate-recognition species is defined as a group of organisms that are known to recognise one ...

Stem cell

... cell research came in November 1998 when a group led by James Thomson at the University of ... involves combining adult stem cells with another group of cells called stromal cells and then adding a ... appointed the Council on Bioethics , an advisory group composed of 18 doctors, legal and ethical ...

Virus classification

... genome type 2.1 DNA viruses 2.1.1 group I - dsDNA viruses (double stranded DNA) 2.1.2 group II - ssDNA viruses (single stranded DNA) 2.2 RNA viruses 2.2.1 group III - dsRNA viruses (double stranded RNA) ...

Alpha helix

... amino acid side-chains are arranged at the outside of the helix. The N-H group of amino acid (n) can establish a hydrogen bond with the C=O group of amino acid (n+4). Short polypeptides usually are not able to adopt ...

Animal

... (mollusks) Annelida (segmented worms) Animals are a major group of organisms , classified as the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. In ... a permanent digestive chamber. The remaining animals form a monophyletic group called the Bilateria . For the most part, they are bilaterally ...

Archaea

... Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota The Archaea are a major group of prokaryotes . Their classification among living things is difficult ... problem. Aside from the similarities noted above, many genetic trees group the two together. Some place eukaryotes closer to Eurarchaeota than ...

BLAST

... against the protein database is then run using this profile, and a larger group of proteins found. This larger group is used to construct another profile, and the process is repeated. By ...

Blood

... which can be crippling. Leukaemia (more often called leukemia) is a group of cancers of the blood-forming tissues. Major blood loss, whether ... to cheat death by drinking the blood of the living. Porphyrias , a group of inherited or acquired disorders , may have been the source of ...

Cancer

... Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division and the ability ... alternative medicine Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that ...

Extinction

... and ecology , extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the ... can contribute directly or indirectly to the extinction of a species or group of species. Most simply, any species that is unable to survive or ...

Flavin

... (or FMN ), a phosphorylated form of riboflavin . The flavin group is capable of undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and can accept ... 1.5 ATP FMN Flavin mononucleotide is a prosthetic group found in NADH dehydrogenase . ...

Flavin

... (or FMN ), a phosphorylated form of riboflavin . The flavin group is capable of undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and can accept ... 1.5 ATP FMN Flavin mononucleotide is a prosthetic group found in NADH dehydrogenase . ...

Hormone

... - "to set in motion") is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. All multicellular organisms (including plants ) ... leukotrienes prostacyclin thromboxane One special group of hormones are trophic hormones that act as stimulants of hormone ...
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