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Genetic in Biological Definition

Apoptosis

... example, as part of the hijacking of the cell's genetic system carried out by human papillomaviruses ... observations helped to lead later work toward the genetic pathways of programmed cell death. Coining ... an abstract formalism derived from complicated genetic studies of a microscopic soil dwelling roundworm ...

Archaea

... cell structure and metabolism . However, their genetic transcription and translation - the two ... an ancestral progenote with poorly developed genetic machinery. This hypothesis is reflected in the ... Aside from the similarities noted above, many genetic trees group the two together. Some place ...

Artificial life

... which include evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), genetic programming (GP), artificial chemistries (AC), ... systems. Microelectronic technology and genetic engineering will soon give us the capability to ...

Bacterial conjugation

... of a zygote , it is merely the exchange of genetic information. In order to perform conjugation, one ... itself into the bacterial chromosome by genetic recombination ) of about 100 kb (kilo base pairs ... ), either free or integrated. Among other genetic information, the F-plasmid carries a tra and a ...

Biology

... 1.1 Universality: biochemistry, cells and the genetic code 1.2 Evolution: the central principle of ... Universality: biochemistry, cells and the genetic code Main article: Life There are many ... All organisms pass on their heredity via the genetic material which is based upon the nucleic acid ...

Biodiversity

... which biodiversity has been identified: genetic diversity - diversity of genes within a species. There is a genetic variability among the populations and the ... Wilson, say that the real biodiversity is the genetic diversity. However, the species diversity is the ...

Bacterium

... who maintain that he over-emphasized a few genetic differences and that both archaebacteria and ... However, independent of sexual reproduction, genetic variations can occur within individual cells ... recombinant events such as mutation (random genetic change within a cell's ...

Cancer

... by damage to DNA (genetic material) through genetic and environmental factors , leading to aberrant ... to the interaction of exogenous exposures with genetic and other endogenous characteristics among ... particularly infants. Here, the aberrant genetic processes that fail to safeguard against the ...

Chromosome

... For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms , see Chromosome (genetic algorithm) ... condensed. They cease to function as accessible genetic material and become a compact transport form. ... sets, Aneuploidy , may be lethal or give rise to genetic disorders. ...

Classical genetics

... of classical genetics in eukaryotes , was genetic linkage . The observation that some genes do ... plant improvement . After the discovery of the genetic code and such tools of cloning as restriction ... were greatly broadened. Some classical genetic ideas have been supplanted with the mechanistic ...

Cladistics

... systematics ( Greek : phylon = race and genetic = birth) is a branch of biology that ... on a wide variety of information, which includes genetic analysis, biochemical analysis, and analysis of ... data sets, for instance structural versus genetic characteristics, may produce widely different ...

Cloning

... means to create a new organism with the same genetic information as an existing one. In a modern ... As the nucleus contains (almost) all of the genetic information of a lifeform, the "host" egg cell ... at the tips of chromosomes which prevent genetic threads fraying every time a cell divides . Over ...

Genetic code

... The genetic code is a set of rules, which maps DNA ... . Nearly all living things use the same genetic code, called the standard genetic code , although a few organisms use minor ...

Common descent

... to this conclusion by the universality of the genetic code (see below). Evidence for common ... and similarity The universality of the genetic code is generally regarded by biologists as ... ). Analysis of the small differences in the genetic code has also provided support for UCD. The Tree ...

Diabetes mellitus

... reasons. There is also a strong inheritable genetic connection in type 2 diabetes: having relatives ... of diabetes, are termed Type 3: Type 3A: genetic defect in beta cells. Type 3B: genetically ... (e.g. exposure to a causative agent). There is a genetic element in the susceptibility of individuals to ...

DNA

... is a nucleic acid which is capable of carrying genetic instructions for the biological development ... suspect, a process called DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting. In DNA profiling the relative ... of translation , known collectively as the genetic code . ...

Down syndrome

... Down's syndrome ) encompasses a number of genetic disorders , of which trisomy 21 (a ... maternal ages. Obstet Gynecol 1981;58:282.) genetic counseling and genetic testing such as amniocentesis are usually ...

Morphogenesis

... tissues and organs is controlled by the genetic "program" and can be modified by environmental ... Medicine was awarded for studies concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development to ... Lewis and Eric Wieschaus . Their researches on genetic screening for embryo patterning mutants revealed ...

Bacterium

... who maintain that he over-emphasized a few genetic differences and that both archaebacteria and ... However, independent of sexual reproduction, genetic variations can occur within individual cells ... recombinant events such as mutation (random genetic change within a cell's ...

Eugenics

... Modern inquiries into the potential use of genetic engineering have led to an increased invocation ... in the post-Nazi years 4 Eugenics and genetic engineering 5 See also 6 References ... on live human beings to test their genetic theories, ranging from simple measurement of ...

Evolution

... of different mechanisms: natural selection , genetic drift or changes in population structure ( gene ... 1.1.1 Morphological evidence 1.1.2 genetic sequence evidence 1.1.3 Origin of life ... traits 1.3.1 Natural selection 1.3.2 genetic drift 1.3.3 Gene flow 1.4 ...

Eukaryote

... are organisms with complex cells , in which the genetic material is organized into membrane - bound ... of life. Although eukaryotes use the same genetic code and metabolic processes as prokaryotes, ... the Cambrian , around 500 million years ago. genetic studies during the 1980s and 1990s left most ...

Evolutionary developmental biology

... for comparisons to be made with genes and genetic networks of related organisms. Contents ... in similar diversity at the at the level of the genetic sequences controlling development. Indeed as ... a population points to the preexistence of genetic variation sufficient to account for ...

Extinction

... species carry on most of the parent species' genetic information , and even though the parent species ... 1.1 Permanence 2 Causes 2.1 genetic and demographic causes 2.2 Habitat degradation ... food to newer, better adapted competitors. genetic and demographic causes ...

Fitness landscape

... in evolutionary optimization methods such as genetic algorithms or evolutionary strategies. In ... 1995 . Melanie Mitchell . An Introduction to genetic Algorithms . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996 . Foundations of genetic Programming, Chapter 2 See also ...

Gene

... Following the discovery that DNA is the genetic material, and with the growth of biotechnology ... variations within a single gene—or single genetic locus—fully determine one's genetic predisposition for obesity. These aspects of ...

Genetic drift

... genetic drift is a mechanism of evolution that acts in ... frequencies 2 Drift versus selection 3 genetic drift in populations 4 See also 5 ... When the effective population size is small, genetic drift will be stronger. Drifting alleles ...

Gene pool

... alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species ... population. A large gene pool indicates a large genetic diversity , which is associated with robust ... bouts of intense selection . Meanwhile, low genetic diversity (see inbreeding and population ...

Genetic code

... The genetic code is a set of rules, which maps DNA ... . Nearly all living things use the same genetic code, called the standard genetic code , although a few organisms use minor ...

Gene therapy

... to be incorporated into the chromosomes by genetic recombination . Somatic gene therapy can be ... Viruses attack their hosts to insert their genetic material into the genetic material of the host. ...

Genetic fingerprinting

... genetic fingerprinting , DNA testing and DNA profiling ... vast majority of their DNA sequence in common. genetic fingerprinting exploits highly variable repeating ... unlikely to have arisen by coincidence. genetic fingerprinting is used in forensic science , to ...

Genetic recombination

... genetic recombination is the process by which the ... can mesh with one another, and may exchange genetic information. Immediately after replication, the ... of the four chromatids carries a unique set of genetic information. Chemistry of crossover ...

Genetics

... function of a particular gene, e.g. analysis of genetic interactions . Within organisms , genetic information generally is carried in chromosomes ... the physical nature of the gene. We now know that genetic information is normally carried on DNA . ...

Gene regulatory network

... regulatory network (also called a GRN or genetic regulatory network ) is a collection of DNA ... to use the metaphor of Boolean networks to model genetic regulatory networks. Each gene, each input, ... (editors), (2001) Computational Modeling of genetic and Biochemical Networks Computational Molecular ...

Genomics

... methods related to genomics are bioinformatics , genetic analysis, measurement of gene expression , and ... the "omics" 2 Comparative genomics 3 genetic similarity 4 See also 5 Sources and ... was " genome ", which refers to the complete genetic makeup of an organism. Because of the success of ...

Hardy-Weinberg principle

... infinite (or effectively so, so as to eliminate genetic drift ) sexually reproducing randomly ... , assortative mating , selection , or genetic drift . Assortative mating will only change the ... frequencies of those genes that are desired. genetic drift is particularly active in small population ...

Hershey-Chase experiment

... Martha Chase that identified DNA to be the genetic material of phages and, ultimately, of all ... It consists of a protein coat that encloses the genetic material. When a phage infects a bacterium, it inserts its genetic material into the bacterium, while its coat ...

Human

... humans and chimpanzees, and estimated an overall genetic difference of less than 1 per cent. It has been ... species are social , forming groups based on genetic ties, affection, self-defense, or shared food ... University Mankato, retrieved April 4, 2005 genetic migrations , by Kevin Duerinck, retrieved April ...

Isozyme

... may be selectively neutral and subject to genetic drift . (3) In rare cases the mutation may ... essentially a study of the causes and effects of genetic variation within and between populations, and in ... projects that only need to identify low levels of genetic variation, e.g. quantifying mating systems . ...

Malaria

... 3 Sickle cell anemia and other genetic effects 4 References 5 External links ... under control. Sickle cell anemia and other genetic effects Carriers of the sickle cell anaemia ... another hemoglobin mutation, which causes the genetic disease thalassemia , may also give its carriers ...
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