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Factor in Biological Definition

Apoptosis

... at each step of these pathways. Tumor necrosis factor ( TNF ), a 157 amino acid inter-cellular ... trigger events that activate the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which induces the ...

Morphogenesis

... involved in morphogenesis are transcription factor proteins that determine the fate of cells by ... The Engrailed protein is a transcription factor (yellow in figure to left) that is expressed in ... transcription factor. If this transcription factor is damaged, the fly grows legs on its head ...

Morphogenesis

... involved in morphogenesis are transcription factor proteins that determine the fate of cells by ... The Engrailed protein is a transcription factor (yellow in figure to left) that is expressed in ... transcription factor. If this transcription factor is damaged, the fly grows legs on its head ...

Oncogene

... (permanently) active like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), etc. Cytoplasmic tyrosine ...

Promoter

... and other small RNAs General transcription factor binding sites Proximal promoter Approximately -250 Specific transcription factor binding sites Distal promoter Anything ... independent) Specific transcription factor binding sites Promoters represent critical ...

Blood type

... describe blood types in humans are ABO and Rh factor . There are 46 other known antigens , most of ... expressed on the glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (vWF), which participates in hemostasis ... Another characteristic of blood is Rhesus factor or ...

Hormone

... hormones : antimullerian hormone (AMH, also mullerian inhibiting factor or hormone) adiponectin (also Acrp30) adrenocorticotropic hormone ... (hCG) growth hormone (GH or hGH) insulin insulin-like growth factor (IGF, also somatomedin) leptin luteinizing hormone (LH) ...

Stem cell

... with another group of cells called stromal cells and then adding a growth factor to stimulate them. The study is outlined in Nature Biotechnology . The ... cells, which provide the structure inside bone marrow, and 3. Add a growth factor called erythropoietin, which provides a signal to the stem cells to begin ...

Bacterium

... referred to as bacilli , cocci , and spirillum . An additional group, vibrios , are comma-shaped. Shape is no longer considered a defining factor in the classification of bacteria, but many genera are named for their shape (e.g. Bacillus , Streptococcus , Staphylococcus ) and it is an ...

Blood

... correct type is transfused. Other blood products administered intravenously are platelets, blood plasma, cryoprecipitate and specific coagulation factor concentrates. Many forms of medication (from antibiotics to chemotherapy ) are administered intravenously, as they are not readily or adequately ...

Charles Darwin

... the Bank of England ten pound note , replacing Charles Dickens . His impressive and supposedly hard-to-forge beard was reportedly a contributing factor in this choice. Darwin's Portrait on the 10 Note Darwin came fourth in the 100 Greatest Britons poll sponsored by the BBC and voted for by ...

Chromatography

... R t or t R , the time between injection and detection. In interrupted development systems like TLC the retention is measured as the retention factor R f , the run length of the compound divided by the run length of the eluent front: The retention of a compound often differs considerably ...

Diabetes mellitus

... is also a strong inheritable genetic connection in type 2 diabetes: having relatives (especially first degree) with type 2 is a considerable risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are obese - chronic obesity leads to increased insulin ...

Enzyme

... too slowly to sustain life ; oxidation of organic food compounds to provide energy, for instance. Enzymes may speed up biochemical reactions by a factor of one thousand times or more. They also provide a means to control the reaction rates by modulating enzymatic activity. Contents ...

Bacterium

... referred to as bacilli , cocci , and spirillum . An additional group, vibrios , are comma-shaped. Shape is no longer considered a defining factor in the classification of bacteria, but many genera are named for their shape (e.g. Bacillus , Streptococcus , Staphylococcus ) and it is an ...

Fungus

... chestnut blight ergot fusarium powdery mildew Texas root rot vegetable caterpillar Fungal infections may also be a factor in causing specific replant disease . In general, humans have a high level of innate immunity to fungi and most of the infections they cause ...

Gene

... locus). History The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel , who studied inheritance in pea plants and hypothesized a factor that conveys traits from parent to offspring. Although he did not use the term gene , he explained his results in terms of inherited ....

Lambda phage

... genetic recombination ) via a Holliday structure and requires both the phage protein int and the bacterial protein IHF ( integration host factor ). Both int and IHF bind to att P and built an intrasome , a DNA-protein-complex designed for site-specific recombination of the phage and ...

Lipase

... Eberhardt, J. Unger, H. L. Trong, G. A. Zimmerman, T. M. McIntyre, D. M. Stafforini, S. M. Prescott, and P. W. Gray. 1995. Plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase is a secreted phospholipase A2 with a catalytic triad. J Biol Chem 270:25481-7. Winkler, F. K., A. D'Arcy, and W. Hunziker. 1990. ...

Malaria

... system to keep up. The stickiness of the red blood cells is particularly pronounced in Plasmodium falciparum malaria and this is the main factor giving rise to hemorrhagic complications of malaria. Some merozoites turn into male and female gametocytes . If a mosquito bites the infected ...

Neurotransmitter

... enkephaline leumorphin Secretins: secretin motilin glucagon vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) Somatostatins: somatostatin Tachykinins : neurokinin A neurokinin B neuropeptide A neuropeptide gamma substance P ...

Operator

... vector spaces ; this kind of operator is distinguished by taking one vector and returning another. For example, consider an enlargement , say by a factor of √2; such as is required to take one size of paper to another. It can also be applied geometrically to vectors as operands. In many ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... given in this example are taken from a PCR program that was successfully used on a 250 bp fragment of the C-terminus of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF). The reaction mixture consists of : 1.0 l DNA template (100 ng/l) 2.5 l of primer, 1.25 l per primer (100 ng/l) 1.0 l ...

Physiology

... tries to understand how physiological traits affect the ecology of a given animal or plant and vice-versa. Genetics is not the only factor that affects the physiology of animals and plants. Environmental strains wreak havoc on eukaryotic organisms as well. For organisms that do not ...

Red Queen

... likelihood that such pairings will occur. For sex to be advantageous for these reasons requires constant selection for changing conditions. One factor that might cause this is the constant arms race between parasites and their hosts. Parasites generally evolve quickly, due to their short ...

Signal transduction

... by phosphorylation of serine residues at their N-terminal end, as a result of another signal transduction pathway, for example, a by a growth factor . This behaviour is called crosstalk . RXR- and orphan-receptors These nucleric receptors can be activated by a classic ...

Thomas Malthus

... . Darwin, in his book The Origin of Species , called his theory an application of the doctrines of Malthus in an area without the complicating factor of human intelligence. Wallace considered it "the most interesting coincidence" that both he and Darwin were independently led to the theory of ...

Wavelength

... (in metres) = 300 / frequency (in megahertz). When light waves (and other electromagnetic waves) enter a medium, their wavelength is reduced by a factor equal to the refractive index n of the medium but the frequency of the wave is unchanged. The wavelength of the wave in the medium, λ' is ...
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