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Experiment in Biological Definition

Experimental evolution

... evolution 3 Lenski's long-term evolution experiment with E. coli 4 Experimental evolution today ... of the first to carry out a controlled evolution experiment was William Dallinger . In the late 19th ... of research. Lenski's long-term evolution experiment with E. coli On February 15 , 1988 , ...

Genetics

... is transmissible between bacteria (see Griffiths experiment ) 1931 Crossing over is the cause of ... in maize 1952 The Hershey-Chase experiment proves the genetic information of phages (and ... in humans to be 46 1958 The Meselson-Stahl experiment demonstrates that DNA is semiconservatively ...

Origin of life

... life. This was demonstrated in the Urey-Miller experiment by Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey in ... " (including the original Miller–Urey experiment of 1953, by Harold Urey and his graduate ... accreted from the primordial solar nebula. The experiment used a reducing mixture of gases ( methane , ...

Abiogenesis

... debate; see, for example, RNA world hypothesis , proteinoid , Miller experiment . Scientific critics of the theory Sir Fred Hoyle with Chandra ... Despite the enormous progress that has been made since the Miller-Urey experiment , abiogenesis is under constant attack from creationists, who continually ...

Evolution

... under conditions very unlike those of modern Earth. The 1953 Miller-Urey experiment suggests that conditions on the ancient earth may have permitted ... synthesis of Darwin's theory. In the 1940s, following up on Griffith's experiment , Avery , McCleod and McCarty definitively identified ...

Hershey-Chase experiment

... The Hershey-Chase experiment was a series of experiments conducted in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and ... most radioactivity was found in the infected bacteria, while in the second experiment most radioactivity was found in the phage coat. These experiments ...

Human

... pathological , leading to mass hysteria or fascism . (See also Milgram experiment , Stanford prison experiment .) Consciousness Main articles: Consciousness , Human ...

Oswald Avery

... and Martha Chase continued this work in 1952 with the Hershey-Chase experiment . These experiments paved the way for Watson and Crick 's discovery of ... DNA, and thus the birth of modern genetics and molecular biology. The experiment was a simple one in concept. Bacteria are able to transfer genetic ...

Optical spectrum

... 1 Historical use of the term 2 Explanation of Newton's experiment 3 Spectroscopy 4 See also Historical use of the term ... white sunlight passing through a prism . Explanation of Newton's experiment When a beam of sunlight strikes the face of a glass prism at an angle, ...

Chromatography

... in the sample mixture travel different distances according to how strongly they interact with the paper. Paper chromatography takes some time and the experiment is usually left to complete for some hours. The final chromatogram can be compared with other known mixture chromatograms to identify sample ...

DNA

... confirmation of the replication mechanism that was implied by the double-helical structure followed in 1958 in the form of the Meselson-Stahl experiment . Work by Crick and coworkers deciphered the genetic code not long afterward. These findings represent the birth of molecular biology . Watson ...

Gene

... map of the fruit fly Drosophila . In 1928 , Frederick Griffith showed that genes could be transferred. In what is now known as Griffith's experiment , injections into a mouse of a deadly strain of a bacteria that had been heat-killed transferred genetic information to a safe strain of the same ...

Har Gobind Khorana

... RNAs with two repeating units (UCUCUCU → UCU CUC UCU) produced two alternating amino acids. This combined with the Nirenberg and Leder experiment showed that UCU codes for Ser and CUC for Leu. RNAs with three repeating units (UACUACUA → UAC UAC UAC, or ACU ACU ACU, or CUA, CUA, CUA) ...

Gregor Mendel

... typical variety. He grew their progeny side by side to see if there would be any approximation of the traits passed on to the next generation. This experiment was "designed to support or to illustrate Lamarck's views concerning the influence of environment upon plants." He found that the plants' respective ...

Growth curve

... Lac operon for details) the number of bacteria present in a nutrient-containing broth was measured during the course of an 8 hour cell growth experiment . The observed pattern of bacterial growth is bi-phasic because two different sugars were present, glucose and lactose. The bacteria prefer to ...

Photosynthesis

... Modern scientists built on the foundation of knowledge from those scientists centuries ago and were able to discover many things. A first experiment to prove that the oxygen developed during the photosynthesis of green plants came from water, was performed by Robin Hill in 1937 and 1939 . He ...

Kinesiology

... the study of the areas of application (akin to a medical study). For example, chiropractic could be studied in this way by conducting an experiment to measure its efficacy of at relieving chronic pain . Other experiments could measure less subjective qualities, like a specific physiological ...

Life

... emergence: Plausible pre-biotic conditions result in the creation of the basic small molecules of life. This was demonstrated in the Urey-Miller experiment . Phospholipids spontaneously form lipid bilayers , the basic structure of a cell membrane . Procedures for producing random RNA molecules ...

Max Delbr

... physiology rather than genetics. He also set up the institute for molecular genetics at the University of Cologne . See also : Luria-Delbruck experiment ...

Microbiology

... process, there are millions of cells in a milliliter of liquid culture. These traits allowed Joshua and Esther Lederberg to devise an elegant experiment in 1951 demonstrating that adaptive mutations arise from preadaptation rather than directed mutation. For this purpose, they invented replica ...

Photosynthesis

... Modern scientists built on the foundation of knowledge from those scientists centuries ago and were able to discover many things. A first experiment to prove that the oxygen developed during the photosynthesis of green plants came from water, was performed by Robin Hill in 1937 and 1939 . He ...

Red Queen

... The Red Queen or " Red Queen's Race " is an evolutionary theory explaining the advantage of sex . By making every individual an experiment when mixing mother's and father's genes , sex may allow a species to adapt quickly just to hold onto the ecological niche that it already has in ...

Species

... again, the populations would remain genetically isolated: therefore they are now different species. In many cases, however, neither observation nor experiment can produce certain answers, and the determination of species rank must be made on a 'best guess' basis from a general knowledge of other related ...
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