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Exchange in Biological Definition

Chromatography

... (TLC) 5 Gas-liquid chromatography 6 Ion exchange chromatography 7 Immobilized metal ion ... for thermally labile molecules. Ion exchange chromatography Ion exchange chromatography is a method to separate molecules ...

Genetic recombination

... chromosomal crossing over . In analog fashion exchange of alleles is possible between homologous sites ... two chromatids can mesh with one another, and may exchange genetic information. Immediately after ... forming a structure known as a cross-strand exchange or a Holliday junction . The Holliday junction ...

Lung

... air-breathing vertebrates . Its function is to exchange oxygen from air with carbon dioxide from ... have a complex but highly efficient crosscurrent exchange system in their lungs, accompanied by air sacs to ... by diffusion, a process of crosscurrent exchange . The purpose of this complex system of air ...

Actin

... from the minus end and the increase in ADP-actin stimulates the exchange of bound ADP for ATP, leading to more ATP-actin units. This rapid turnover ... reassembly. The protein profilin reverses this effect by stimulating the exchange of bound ADP for ATP. In addition, ATP-actin units bound to profilin will ...

Bacterial conjugation

... the fusing of gametes and the creation of a zygote , it is merely the exchange of genetic information. In order to perform conjugation, one of the ... pili themselves do not seem to be the structures through which the actual exchange of DNA takes place; rather, some proteins coded in the tra or trb loci ...

Chromosomal crossover

... by which two chromosomes , paired up during Prophase I of meiosis , exchange some distal portion of their DNA . Crossover occurs when two chromosomes ... the same place or locus in the sequence of base pairs, the result is an exchange of genes . This outcome is the normal way for crossover to occur. If ...

Dialysis

... dialysis (a CAPD exchange): The supplies and materials needed for an exchange are gathered in one clean location. Notable amongst these is a bag of ... on the end of the catheter. The effluent is inspected after a dialysis exchange is complete; a cloudy effluent indicates probable peritoneal infection. ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... is flowing through. In this situation, one can use a flux limiter . The exchange rate of a gas across a fluid membrane can be determined by using this law together with Graham's law . See also Gas exchange Lung Alveoli References W.F. Smith, Foundations of ...

Actin

... from the minus end and the increase in ADP-actin stimulates the exchange of bound ADP for ATP, leading to more ATP-actin units. This rapid turnover ... reassembly. The protein profilin reverses this effect by stimulating the exchange of bound ADP for ATP. In addition, ATP-actin units bound to profilin will ...

Antibiotic resistance

... is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic . Antibiotic resistance develops through mutation or plasmid exchange between bacteria of the same species . If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multiresistant or, informally, a superbug ....

Biodiversity

... these new rules, it is expected that bioprospecting or collection of natural products has to be allowed by the biodiversity-rich country, in exchange for a share of the benefits. Sovereignety principles can rely upon what is better known as Access and Benefit Sharing Agreements (ABAs). The ...

Bacterium

... sexual reproduction, the end result is that a bacterium contains a combination of traits from two different parental cells. Three different modes of exchange have thus far been identified in bacteria: transformation (the transfer of naked DNA from one bacterial cell to another in solution, this can ...

Chromosome

... of chromosomes). Gametes are produced by meiosis of a diploid germ line cell. During meiosis, the matching chromosomes of father and mother can exchange small parts of themselves ( crossover ), and thus create new chromosomes that are not inherited solely from either parent. When a male and a female ...

Endosymbiont

... as to why the bacteria may have lost genes, Muller's ratchet , is that since the endosymbionts are maternally transmitted and have no opportunity to exchange genes with other bacteria, it is more difficult to keep good genes in all individuals in a population of these endosymbionts.) Research in which a ...

Endosymbiont

... as to why the bacteria may have lost genes, Muller's ratchet , is that since the endosymbionts are maternally transmitted and have no opportunity to exchange genes with other bacteria, it is more difficult to keep good genes in all individuals in a population of these endosymbionts.) Research in which a ...

Warm-blooded

... of their brains and eyes in cold water, allowing for faster eye movements when hunting. Tuna are able to warm their entire bodies through a heat exchange mechanism called the rete mirable, which helps keep heat inside the body, and prevents the loss of heat through the fish's gills into the cold water. ...

Bacterium

... sexual reproduction, the end result is that a bacterium contains a combination of traits from two different parental cells. Three different modes of exchange have thus far been identified in bacteria: transformation (the transfer of naked DNA from one bacterial cell to another in solution, this can ...

Herpetology

... share "cold-bloodedness" but otherwise have surprisingly little else in common. Typically, amphibians have a permeable skin that assists in the exchange of gases and respiration , have a two-chambered heart like fish, and are often bound to water for at least some part of their life, if only the ...

Kidney

... Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle who described it in the early 1860s. The loop of Henle maintains an osmotic gradient set up as a countercurrent exchange to filter and concentrate glomerular filtrate. Cells lining the tubule have numerous mitochondria , enabling active transport to take place by ...

Leaf

... on each side by chloroplast-containing guard cells , and two to four subsidiary cells that lack chloroplasts. The stoma complex regulates the exchange of gases and water vapor between the outside air and the interior of the leaf. Typically, the stomata are more numerous over the abaxial (lower) ...

Lambda phage

... the complementary sequence in the circular phage genome is called att P and consists of the parts P-O-P'. The integration itself is a sequential exchange (see genetic recombination ) via a Holliday structure and requires both the phage protein int and the bacterial protein IHF ( integration ...

Lichen

... cells may be digested by the fungus, but for the most part the photobiont remains healthy during the functional period of the symbiosis with the exchange of nutrients being "voluntary". When seen under magnification, a section through a typical foliose lichen thallus reveals four layers of ...

Antibiotic resistance

... is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic . Antibiotic resistance develops through mutation or plasmid exchange between bacteria of the same species . If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multiresistant or, informally, a superbug ....

Passive transport

... referred to as moving the material "against the concentration gradient"). If and when the concentration gradient have been eliminated, no net exchange of material occurs. Although material may move forth from one area to the other, it will be balanced by movement of the same amount of material to ...

Phosphorylation

... Histidine and aspartate phosphorylation occurs in prokaryotes as part of two-component signalling. Other kinds ATP , the "high-energy" exchange medium in the cell, is synthesized in the mitochondrion by addition of a third phosphate group to ADP in a process referred to as oxidative ...
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