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Eukaryotes in Biological Definition

Archaea

... to bacteria in some respects but similar to eukaryotes in others. Contents ... features, but are extremely similar to those of eukaryotes . For instance, archaean translation uses ... peptidoglycan wall. Further, both bacteria and eukaryotes have membranes composed mainly of glycerol- ester ...

Bacterium

... to organisms with more complex cells, called eukaryotes . The term "bacteria" has variously applied to ... divisions of the living world, together with the eukaryotes . eukaryotes were generally believed to have evolved from ...

Chromosome

... nucleotide sequences . In the chromosomes of eukaryotes , the uncondensed DNA exists in a quasi-ordered ... 1 Chromosomes in eukaryotes 2 Chromosomes in bacteria 3 Chromatin ... 9 External links Chromosomes in eukaryotes ...

Disulfide bond

... 1 In bacteria 2 In rubber 3 In eukaryotes 4 In hair 5 External links In ... role in the vulcanization of rubber . In eukaryotes In eukaryotic cells, disulfide bonds are ... in prokaryotes Oxidative protein folding in eukaryotes : mechanisms and consequences The human ...

Bacterium

... to organisms with more complex cells, called eukaryotes . The term "bacteria" has variously applied to ... divisions of the living world, together with the eukaryotes . eukaryotes were generally believed to have evolved from ...

Eukaryote

... Plantae - Plants Protista eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells , in which the ... structures, and are called prokaryotes . The eukaryotes share a common origin, and are often treated ... defining the cell's organization. However, some eukaryotes (e.g. diplomonads , microsporidia ) do not ...

Microbiology

... , including viruses , prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes . Today, most of the work in microbiology is done ... in isolation from other cells Unicellular eukaryotes reproduce by mitotic division and prokaryotes ... branches of biology: Bacteria and simple eukaryotes contain small circular DNAs , called plasmids . ...

Prokaryote

... referring to the nucleus. This is in contrast to eukaryotes , organisms that have cell nuclei and may be ... between the structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is so great that it is considered to be the most ... structure of prokaryotes differs greatly from eukaryotes in many ways. The defining characteristic is, of ...

RNA

... ( mRNA ) is transcribed directly ( splicing in eukaryotes ) from a gene 's DNA (in eukaryotes exported into the cytoplasm ) and is used to ... exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm (in eukaryotes mRNA is "processed" before being exported), ...

Ribosome

... and the rough endoplasmic reticulum (in eukaryotes only) for the time of synthesis. They insert the ... . The ribosomal subunits of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are quite similar. However, prokaryotes use 70S ... a (small) 30S and a (large) 50S subunit, whereas eukaryotes use 80S ribosomes, each consisting of a (small) ...

Alternative splicing

... Alternative splicing is the process that occurs in eukaryotes in which the splicing process of a pre-mRNA can lead to different ... of a mutation may be changed. It has been proposed that for eukaryotes it was a very important step towards higher efficiency, because ...

Biology

... showing the separation of the three domains bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl Woese . Trees constructed with other ... of universal common descent ( UCD ) for all bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes (see Three domain system ). Homeostasis: adapting to change ...

Citric acid cycle

... outputs The citric acid cycle takes place within the mitochondria in eukaryotes , and within the cytoplasm in prokaryotes . Fuel molecule ... six-carbon-molecule) down into pyruvate (a three-carbon molecule). In eukaryotes , pyruvate moves into the mitochondria . It is converted into acetyl-CoA ...

Citric acid cycle

... outputs The citric acid cycle takes place within the mitochondria in eukaryotes , and within the cytoplasm in prokaryotes . Fuel molecule ... six-carbon-molecule) down into pyruvate (a three-carbon molecule). In eukaryotes , pyruvate moves into the mitochondria . It is converted into acetyl-CoA ...

Splicing (genetics)

... is a modification of genetic information prior to translation . In eukaryotes , a gene often contains altering sequences known as exons (expressed ... codons). In contrast to prokaryotes , which do not usually have introns, eukaryotes initially create a primary mRNA transcript called pre-mRNA that is ...

Alga

... and conduct photosynthesis directly within the cytoplasm , rather than in specialized organelles. Eukaryotic algae All other algae are eukaryotes and conduct photosynthesis within membrane-bound structures (organelles) called chloroplasts . Chloroplasts contain DNA and are similar in ...

Cell growth

... major aspect of cell reproduction is the physical division of entire cells, usually called cytokinesis . Cell reproduction is more complex in eukaryotes than in other organisms. Non-eukaryotic cells such as bacterial cells reproduce by binary fission , a process that includes DNA replication, ...

Classical genetics

... consists of the techniques and methodologies of genetics that predate the advent of molecular biology . A key discovery of classical genetics in eukaryotes , was genetic linkage . The observation that some genes do not segregate independently at meiosis , broke the laws of Mendelian inheritance , ...

Common descent

... regarded by biologists as definitive evidence in favor of the theory of universal common descent ( UCD ) for all bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes (see Three domain system ). Analysis of the small differences in the genetic code has also provided support for UCD. The Tree of Life Web Project ...

Cytosol

... glycolysis , and they act as intracellular receptors and ribosomes . In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol. In eukaryotes , the cytosol contains the cell organelles . In plants, the amount of cytosol can be reduced due to the large tonoplast (central vacuole ) that ...

Electron transfer chain

... adenosine triphosphate synthesis by ATP synthase (aka the F 0 F 1 particle). They are used in photophosphorylation and respiration . In eukaryotes , including humans, an ETC is found spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane and accepts electrons from electron donors such as NADH or ...

Evolution

... A phylogenetic tree of all living things , based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl Woese . Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, although they may place some early-branching ...

Fungus

... foot . Mycoses are particularly severe in the case of immunodeficient patients, such as those suffering from AIDS . Taxonomy Fungi are eukaryotes . Once counted among the plants , the fungi are now thought to be more closely related to the animals and choanoflagellates . These groups are ...

Genetic recombination

... structure which can be 'pulled' by other recombinases, moving it along the four-stranded structure. Consequences of crossover In most eukaryotes , a cell carries two copies of each gene , each referred to as an allele . Each parent passes on one allele to each offspring. Even without ...

Glycolysis

... Eukaryotic aerobic respiration produces an additional 34 molecules (approximately) of ATP for each glucose molecule oxidized. Location In eukaryotes glycolysis takes place within the cytosol of the cell (as opposed to the mitochondria , where reactions more closely connected to aerobic ...

Histone

... act as spools around which DNA winds and they play a role in gene regulation. This enables the compaction necessary to fit the large genomes of eukaryotes inside cell nuclei. Histones act in gene regulation . Histones can undergo posttranslational modifications . These modifications can play a role ...

Meiosis

... , which fuse to form zygotes that develop into new organisms. In most animals this is often the primary or only means of proliferation. In other eukaryotes , sexual reproduction may play a more restricted role, while asexual reproduction gains emphasis (examples include plants and hydras ). The ...

Microorganism

... . Microorganisms may be found almost anywhere in the taxonomic structure. Bacteria and archaea are almost always microscopic. A number of eukaryotes are also microscopic, including most protists and a number of fungi . Microorganisms are found everywhere in nature. Even in hostile ...

Mitosis

... genetic material in eukaryotic cells. This process assures that each daughter nucleus receives a complete copy of the organism's genome. In most eukaryotes mitosis is accompanied with cell division or cytokinesis , but there are many exceptions, for instance among the fungi . There is another ...

Nucleosome

... is the fundamental repeating subunit of eukayotic DNA , and is made up of DNA and histone proteins. It is found in the cell nucleus in eukaryotes . All chromatin (except for that packaged in the sperm nucleus) consists of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes can be seen with an electron microscope as ...

Oxidative phosphorylation

... and the citric acid cycle . The process takes place at a biological membrane . In prokaryotes this is the plasma membrane , and in eukaryotes it is the inner of the two mitochondrial membranes . NADH and FADH 2 , electron carrier molecules that were "loaded" during the citric acid ...

Peroxisome

... Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes . They consist of a single membrane that separates them from the cytosol (the internal fluid of the cell). Peroxisomes were discovered by ...

Phage

... (also called bacteriophage ) (in Greek phageton = food/consumption) is a small virus that infects only bacteria . Like viruses that infect eukaryotes , phages consist of an outer protein hull and the enclosed genetic material (which consists of double-stranded DNA in 95% of the phages known) ...

Phosphorylation

... 1.1 Function 1.2 Signaling networks 1.3 Types of phosphorylation 2 Other kinds Protein phosphorylation Function In eukaryotes , protein phosphorylation is probably the most important regulatory event. Many enzymes and receptors are switched "on" or "off" by ...

Alga

... and conduct photosynthesis directly within the cytoplasm , rather than in specialized organelles. Eukaryotic algae All other algae are eukaryotes and conduct photosynthesis within membrane-bound structures (organelles) called chloroplasts . Chloroplasts contain DNA and are similar in ...

Protein biosynthesis

... process, beginning with transcription and ending with translation . Protein biosynthesis although very similar, differs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Transcription 2 Translation 3 Events following biosynthesis 4 External links ...

Proteome

... systems. For example, all of the proteins in a virus can be called a viral proteome. The proteome is larger than the genome , expecially in eukaryotes , in the sense there are more proteins than genes . This is due to alternative splicing of genes and post-translational modifications like ...

Protist

... Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists are a heterogenous group of living things, comprising those eukaryotes which are neither animals , plants , or fungi . They are usually treated as a kingdom Protista or Protoctista, first introduced by Haeckel . ...

Protist

... Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists are a heterogenous group of living things, comprising those eukaryotes which are neither animals , plants , or fungi . They are usually treated as a kingdom Protista or Protoctista, first introduced by Haeckel . ...

Proton-motive force

... force in some step. This can be described as the storing of energy as a combination of a proton and voltage gradient across a plasma membrane . In eukaryotes the Proton-motive force exists across the inner mithochondrial membrane. It is generated by energy from the citric acid cycle and is utilized in ...
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