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Errors in Biological Definition

Gene

... Types of genes Due to rare, spontaneous errors (e.g. in DNA replication ) mutations in the ... attribute it to variations within a gene. errors during DNA replication may lead to the ... Tatum showed that mutations in genes caused errors in certain steps in metabolic pathways . This ...

Y chromosome

... recombination, and repairs a great many errors. errors not caught by this technique are weeded out over ... As such, without a then-extant repair mechanism, errors and deletions built up in the Y chromosome over ... at all. Without any such machinery, random errors in copying would logically and inevitably cause ...

DNA

... a new strand which is nearly identical to the previous strand. errors that occur in the synthesis are known as mutations . The process known ... double strands are generally almost perfectly identical, but occasionally errors in replication can result in a less than perfect copy (see mutation ), ...

Molecular evolution

... (usually DNA or RNA ) of a cell . Mutations can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division and by exposure to ... such questions is an aim of population genetics . Rare spontaneous errors in DNA replication cause the mutations that drive molecular evolution. ...

Cladistics

... be polyphyletic because elephants and rhinoceroses arose separately from non-pachyderms. Evolutionary taxonomists consider polyphyletic groups to be errors in classification, often occurring because convergence or other homoplasy was misinterpreted as homology . Following Hennig, cladists argue ...

Genetic code

... equivalence of purines or that of pyrimidines at two-fold degenerate sites adds a further fault-tolerance. The codons attempt to ensure that minor errors in the genetic code either only causes a silent mutation or an error that would not affect the amino acid's hydrophilic / hydrophobic property, eg. ...

Eye

... the power of the lens. As we age we lose this ability to adjust the focus. Such a condition is known as presbyopia . There are other refraction errors arising from the shape of the cornea and lens, and from the length of the eyeball. These include myopia , hyperopia , and astigmatism . ...

Genetic code

... equivalence of purines or that of pyrimidines at two-fold degenerate sites adds a further fault-tolerance. The codons attempt to ensure that minor errors in the genetic code either only causes a silent mutation or an error that would not affect the amino acid's hydrophilic / hydrophobic property, eg. ...

Neurospora crassa

... or Medicine . Beadle and Tatum exposed N. crassa to x-rays, causing mutations . They then observed failures in metabolic pathways caused by errors in specific enzymes . This led to the "one gene, one enzyme" hypothesis that states that specific genes code for specific proteins . In the ...

Stem cell

... capacity to multiply as embryonic stem cells do. Finally, adult stem cells may contain more DNA abnormalities—caused by sunlight, toxins, and errors in making more DNA copies during the course of a lifetime. However, there are a number of clinically proven adult stem cell successes. ...

Urea cycle

... have to convert it to some other substance, like urea or uric acid . Insufficiency of the urea cycle occurs in some genetic disorders ( inborn errors of metabolism ), and in liver failure . The result in liver failure is accumulation of nitrogenous waste, mainly ammonia, which leads to hepatic ...
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