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End in Biological Definition

Actin

... , actin filaments are polar, with the plus (+) end elongating approximately 10 times faster than the ... filament. ADP-actin dissociates from the minus end and the increase in ADP-actin stimulates the ... and promotes their dissociation from the minus end and prevents their reassembly. The protein ...

Alpha helix

... a buildup of positive charge at the N-terminal end and negative charge at the C-terminal end which is a destabilizing influence. As a result, α helices are often capped at the N-terminal end by a negatively charged amino acid (like ...

Sticky end/blunt end

... In biology , sticky end and blunt end are the two possible configurations resulting ... length, then they will terminate in a blunt end , as in the following example: 5'- ...

Dialysis

... clamped off and the twist valve on the catheter end is opened. This permits fluid to enter the ... tip and a protective cap is placed on the end of the catheter. The effluent is inspected ... lightheadedness, and unconsciousness. At the end of the prescribed time, the patient is ...

DNA

... the bases it collects from the soup will ideally end up as a complete replica of the original, unless ... three 'stop' or 'nonsense' codons signifying the end of the coding region. In many species of ... like to note that the juxtaposition of the 3' end of one DNA strand beside the 5' ...

Enzyme

... a particular starting set of conditions, the end products of a particular reaction (including net ... individual pathway taken from beginning point to end point. This is required by the Law of ... (A->B). (2) Sequential feedback inhibition. The end products P 1 and P 2 inhibit the first ...

Fermentation

... process. Doing the latter rest at the lower end of the range produces more low-order sugars which ... in alcohol . While a rest closer to the higher end of the range creates more higher-order sugars, ... aroma and bitterness to the beer. At the end of the boil, the hopped wort settles to clarify ...

Actin

... , actin filaments are polar, with the plus (+) end elongating approximately 10 times faster than the ... filament. ADP-actin dissociates from the minus end and the increase in ADP-actin stimulates the ... and promotes their dissociation from the minus end and prevents their reassembly. The protein ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... primers , which determine the beginning and end of the region to be amplified (see following ... nucleotides that exactly match the beginning and end of the DNA fragment to be amplified. They anneal ... the other anneals right on the variation. The 3' end of the allele-specific primer is modified, to ...

Protein biosynthesis

... A poly-A tail is added on the 3’ end for protection and as a template for further ... is formed. When the entire unit reaches the end codon on the mRNA, it falls apart and a newly ... one or more amino acids from the leading (amino) end of the polypeptide chain, leaving a protein ...

Splicing (genetics)

... (snRNPs (pronounced "snurps")), splice the 3' end of the first exon, form the intron into a lariat , splice the 5' end of the next exon, and fuse the exon-exon ... thus named because it binds to the 5' end of the mRNA; The methylated cap prevents the ...

Antibody

... an Fc ( f ragment c rystallizable) fragment. Each half of the forked end of the "Y" shaped monomer is called the Fab fragment. It is composed of ... which together shape the antigen binding site at the amino terminal end of the monomer. The two variable domains bind the antigens they are ...

Bacterium

... genetic material. Although not equivalent to sexual reproduction, the end result is that a bacterium contains a combination of traits from two ... in many different ways. Bacteria can have a single polar flagellum at one end of a cell, or they can have clusters of many flagella at one end. ...

Bone

... body of the bone; region of primary ossification Epiphysis the end regions of the bone; regions of secondary ossification Epiphyseal ... to the diaphysis (adults only) Head the proximal articular end of the bone Neck the region of bone between the Head and the ...

Biopolymer

... acid sequence is to list the nucleotides as they occur from the 5' end to the 3' end of the polymer chain , where 5' and 3' refer to the numbering of carbons ...

Centriole

... , each arranged at a right angle such that when looking down the tube, one end of the triplet pair points slightly outwards and the other end points slightly inwards. In animal cells as well as certain algae and ...

Charles Darwin

... noted that with his theory "progress is no invariable rule." Towards the end of Descent of Man , Darwin said that he believed that man would "sink ... than by natural selection. The question would plague him until the end of his life, and he never concluded fully one way or the other about it. ...

C-terminal end

... The C-terminal end refers to the extremity of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free carboxyl group (COOH). See also N-terminal end . ...

Morphogenesis

... translated into proteins a Bicoid protein gradient forms at the anterior end of the egg. Nanos protein forms a gradient at the posterior end. The ... binds to the hunchback mRNA and blocks its translation in the posterior end of Drosophila embryos. The Bicoid, Hunchback, and Caudal proteins are ...

Bacterium

... genetic material. Although not equivalent to sexual reproduction, the end result is that a bacterium contains a combination of traits from two ... in many different ways. Bacteria can have a single polar flagellum at one end of a cell, or they can have clusters of many flagella at one end. ...

Extinction

... had been universally accepted that the extinction of a species meant the end of its time on Earth. However, recent technological advances have ... The most recent of these, the K-T extinction 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period, is best known for having wiped out the non- ...

Meiosis

... ). Oocytes that are not ovulated do not complete meiosis I. The end of Prophase I (also known as Prometaphase I ) is signified by contraction ... and presents no DNA replication. Two daughter cells are formed by the end of Telophase I. Meiosis II Prophase II takes an inversely ...

Mitochondrion

... cell type, mitochondria can have very different overall structures. At one end of the spectrum, the mitochondria can resemble the standard sausage-shaped ... pictured to the right, ranging from 1 to 4 m in length. At the other end of the spectrum, mitochondria can appear as a highly branched, ...

Mitochondrion

... cell type, mitochondria can have very different overall structures. At one end of the spectrum, the mitochondria can resemble the standard sausage-shaped ... pictured to the right, ranging from 1 to 4 m in length. At the other end of the spectrum, mitochondria can appear as a highly branched, ...

Morphogenesis

... translated into proteins a Bicoid protein gradient forms at the anterior end of the egg. Nanos protein forms a gradient at the posterior end. The ... binds to the hunchback mRNA and blocks its translation in the posterior end of Drosophila embryos. The Bicoid, Hunchback, and Caudal proteins are ...

Muscle

... the pyramidal tract to the spinal cord and from there to the motor end plate at the muscles. Along the way, feedback loops such as that of the ... disease to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . Diseases of the motor end plate include myasthenia gravis , a form of muscle weakness due to ...

N-terminal end

... The N-terminal end refers to the extremity of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free amine group (NH 2 ). See also C-terminal end . ...

Reverse genetics

... faulty allele or gene. Locating the gene on its chromosome is the end point of an investigation. With the readily performed modern techniques ... So phenotype, rather than the starting point, is in reverse genetics the end point. An alternative used in organisms such as C. elegans is to ...

Ribosome

... subunits ( small and large ) assemble at the start codon (the 5' end of the mRNA). The ribosome uses tRNA (transfer RNAs which are RNA ... done for each triplet on the mRNA, while the ribosome moves towards the 3' end of the mRNA. Usually, several ribosomes are working parallel on a single ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... the United States are being prescribed an anti-depressant product. At the end of 2004, some "block buster" anti-inflammatory drugs were in the news for ... of serotonin as in the case of SSRIs, and instead of preventing the end consumption of serotonin as in the case of MAOIs, 5-HTP supplements are ...

Xylem

... thinner walled, and less tapered than tracheids . They are aligned end to end, forming long micropipes, the vessels of xylem. The end walls of vessel elements are perforated, enabling water to flow through ...

Albinism

... In Jamaica , albinos have long been denigrated and regarded as cursed. In recent times, the albino dancehall singer Yellowman has helped to end this perception. See also: List of albinos Albinism in animals Albinism is not restricted to the human species—other animals also ...

Anaphase

... separate. Each chromatid moves to opposite poles of the cell (opposite ends of the nuclear spindle ). Anaphase is preceded by metaphase , by the end of which fully condensed sister chromatids are arranged in pairs, their centromeres lying along a surface known as the metaphase plate. Spindle ...

Apoptosis

... from fertilized eggs to fully-developed animals and plants. It has also suggested specific answers to why normal cells carry out apopotosis when they end up outside the places they should be in body tissues. Immune cell regulation B cells and T cells are sophisticated –and very ...

Artificial life

... logically from step to step by combining information from the environment and its own programming, and said that natural organisms would in the end be found to follow similar simple rules. He also spoke about the idea of self-replicating machines . He postulated a machine -- a kinematic ...

Aseptic technique in microbiology

... on a clean, preferably microbe-free surface with some overhead protection from airborne microbes. The person would start the fire, and move the end of the innoculating loop, in a slow back-and-forth motion , through the top of the blue part of the flame. The person would not allow the loop to ...

Botany

... , genetic and biochemical level through to organelles , cells , tissues , organs and the biodiversity of whole plants. At the top end of this scale, plants can be studied in populations, communities and ecosystems (as in ecology ). At each of these levels a botanist might be ...

Carbon fixation

... Calvin cycle in the dark reactions of photosynthesis. These three carbon dioxide molecules undergo the chemical reactions in the Calvin cycle. The end result is that there is a net output of a single G3P ; and in two turns of the Calvin cycle when two G3P are output, then they are combined to form ...

Cell division

... . Senescent cells deteriorate and die, causing the body to age. Cells stop dividing because the telomeres , protective bits of DNA on the end of a chromosome , become shorter with each division and eventually can no longer protect the chromosome. Cancer cells, on the other hand, are ...

Cell growth

... During Binary fission and mitosis the duplicated DNA content of the reproducing parental cell is separated into two equal halves that are destined to end up in the two daughter cells. The final part of the cell reproduction process is cell division , when daughter cells physically split apart from a ...
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(Date:8/29/2014)... German . ... nitrogen cycle on Earth and in biological wastewater treatment ... depend on nitrite as their source of energy. An ... microbiologist at the University of Vienna, has now shown ... source of energy. The oxidation of hydrogen with oxygen ...
(Date:8/29/2014)... nucleus, chromosomal DNA is tightly bound to structural ... chromatin. Until about two decades ago, histones were ... material around which the glamorous DNA strands were ... appreciation for how DNA/histone interactions govern gene expression. ... studying the sequence of the genome from cancer ...
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