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Elements in Biological Definition

Culture

... and observers often defended (or criticized) elements of high culture for repressing " human nature ". ... from one another develop unique cultures, but elements of different cultures can easily spread from one ... unifying cultural system, and that heterogenous elements are better understood as subcultures . Others ...

Promoter

... showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Promoter elements 2 Promoter sequences 2.1 Prokaryotic ... Aberrant Promoter Function Promoter elements Core promoter Transcription Start Site ... binding sites Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory ...

Xylem

... Tracheids and vessel elements In vascular plants , the xylem is the ... Xylem (in angiosperms ) is composed of vessel elements and tracheids ( gymnosperm xylem consists only of tracheids). Vessel elements are similar in structure to the sieve-tube ...

Bacterium

... include nitrogen , sulfur , phosphorus , vitamins and metallic elements such as sodium , potassium , calcium , magnesium , manganese , iron ... copper and nickel for normal growth. For some species, additional trace elements such as selenium , tungsten , vanadium or boron are needed. Based ...

Blood

... of blood is to supply nutrients ( oxygen , glucose ) and constitutional elements to tissues and to remove waste products (such as carbon dioxide and ... of blood Blood is composed of several kinds of corpuscles; these formed elements of the blood constitute about 45% of whole blood. The other 55% is blood ...

Bacterium

... include nitrogen , sulfur , phosphorus , vitamins and metallic elements such as sodium , potassium , calcium , magnesium , manganese , iron ... copper and nickel for normal growth. For some species, additional trace elements such as selenium , tungsten , vanadium or boron are needed. Based ...

Gene

... factors , to specific non-coding DNA sequences called regulatory elements . So, to be expressed, our DNA strand needs to be properly regulated by ... than variation in sequences that encode proteins. Thus, though regulatory elements are often distinguished from genes in molecular biology, in effect they ...

Nutrition

... and minerals, it was thought that we had adequate knowledge about the elements of food. Food was seen as the fuel, and we simply had to have enough of ... in our bodies often has damaging side effects on cells, and certain food elements such as vitamin C have been seen to be vital in protecting against the ...

Phloem

... consists of sieve-tube members and companion cells . The sieve-tube elements are large, cylindrical cells, with large pores in the cell wall at ... and even messenger RNAs are transported in the phloem through sieve tube elements . Phloem is produced in phases. Primary phloem is laid down by the ...

Signal transduction

... by the hormones attach at the DNA at receptor-specific Hormone Responsive elements ( HREs ), DNA sequences that are located in the promoter region of the ... prior to DNA binding. As a third function, it contains structural elements that are responsible for transactivation , used for communication with ...

Absorption spectrum

... when viewed through a spectroscope . The wavelengths of these lines shown are particular to particular elements, and allows for identification of elements present in stars and other gaseous objects that cannot be measured directly. See also Fraunhofer lines spectrometry densitometry ...

Alpha helix

... the α helix diameter of 12 being the same as the width of the major groove in B-form DNA . α helices are one of the basic structural elements in proteins, together with beta sheets . The peptide backbone of an α helix has 3.6 amino acids per turn. See also : tertiary ...

Apoptosis

... central effectors of apoptosis , a group of cysteine proteases called caspases , which carry out the cleaving of both structural and functional elements of the cell, resulting in the previously described morphological changes. Biochemical execution Caspases are normally suppressed by IAP ...

Bioinformatics

... take a variety of directions: one 2004 study analyzed the promoter sequences of co-expressed (clustered together) genes to find common regulatory elements and used machine learning techniques to predict the promoters involved in regulating each cluster (see this study ). Protein expression ...

Biochemistry

... needs to be moved to Talk Page: There seems to be no reference whatsoever to Dr. Wilhelm Schuessler, who discovered the 12 essential mineral elements of which the body is both composed and requires for life. Schuessler was a German Scientist, homoeopath and Medical Doctor who lived in Oldenburg ...

Carbohydrate

... formula C n H 2n O n . However, many important carbohydrates deviate from this, such as deoxyribose . Sometimes compounds containing other elements are also counted as carbohydrates (e.g. chitin , which contains nitrogen ). The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides , which are small ...

Carolus Linnaeus

... time away, and indeed, the Lutheran Linnaeus would have been horrified by it. Linnaeus was only attempting a convenient way of categorizing the elements of the natural world. The Swedish king, Adolf Fredrik , ennobled Linnaeus in 1757 , and after the privy council had confirmed the ennoblement ...

Centromere

... the centromere has no defined DNA sequence . It typically consists of large arrays of repetitive DNA where the sequence within individual repeat elements is similar but not identical. In humans, the centromeric repeat unit is called α-satellite. However, repeats of α-satellite are not ...

Charles Darwin

... than his own, and was not above a jab at the Irish), and though he was not so sexist, racist, or classist as many of his contemporaries, these elements of his thought are often hard for modern readers to reconcile with his overall scientific approach. Darwin was contradictory and ambiguous in his ...

Chromosome

... (in Greek chroma = colour and soma = body) is, minimally, a very long, continuous piece of DNA , which contains many genes , regulatory elements and other intervening nucleotide sequences . In the chromosomes of eukaryotes , the uncondensed DNA exists in a quasi-ordered structure inside the ...

Citric acid cycle

... links History The citric acid cycle is also known as the Krebs cycle after Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (1900-1981), who proposed the key elements of this pathway in 1937 and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for its discovery in 1953 . Location of cycle and inputs and outputs ...

Bioinformatics

... take a variety of directions: one 2004 study analyzed the promoter sequences of co-expressed (clustered together) genes to find common regulatory elements and used machine learning techniques to predict the promoters involved in regulating each cluster (see this study ). Protein expression ...

Diabetes mellitus

... which established such a system, and resulted in various activities throughout the world including the Black Sea Telediab project which produced elements of a distributed diabetic record and management system as an open source computer program. History Although diabetes has been recognized ...

DNA

... and executive power -- or, to use another simile, they are architect's plan and builder's craft -- in one." He conceived of these dual functional elements as being woven into the molecular structure of chromosomes. By understanding the exact molecular structure of the chromosomes one could hope to ...

Morphogenesis

... are maternal effect genes that are important in the formation of more posterior abdominal segments of the Drosophila embryo. Cytoskeletal elements such as microtubules are polarized within the oocyte and can be used to allow the localization of mRNA molecules to specific parts of the cell. ...

Epigenetics

... include differences in DNA methylation , as well as difference in chromatin structure. Another possibility involves the genomes of cytoplasmic elements ( chloroplasts and mitochondria ). Other mechanisms have also been proposed. See epigenetic inheritance for a more detailed discussion. The ...

Citric acid cycle

... links History The citric acid cycle is also known as the Krebs cycle after Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (1900-1981), who proposed the key elements of this pathway in 1937 and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for its discovery in 1953 . Location of cycle and inputs and outputs ...

Microscope

... . In modern microscopes the mirror is replaced by a lamp unit providing stable, controllable illumination. Basic microscope main elements ocular lens or eye-piece objective turret, or nosepiece objective lenses coarse adjustment knob fine adjustment knob object ...

Molecular biology

... is cloned (using PCR and/or restriction enzymes ) into a plasmid (known as an expression vector). This plasmid may have special promoter elements to drive production of the protein of interest, and may also have antibiotic resistance markers to help follow the plasmid. This plasmid can be ...

Morphogenesis

... are maternal effect genes that are important in the formation of more posterior abdominal segments of the Drosophila embryo. Cytoskeletal elements such as microtubules are polarized within the oocyte and can be used to allow the localization of mRNA molecules to specific parts of the cell. ...

Redox

... reaction as two half-reactions: an oxidation reaction: H 2 → 2H + + 2e - and a reduction reaction: F 2 + 2e - → 2F - elements always have an oxidation number of zero. In the first half reaction hydrogen is oxidized from an oxidation number of zero to an oxidation number of ...

Redox

... reaction as two half-reactions: an oxidation reaction: H 2 → 2H + + 2e - and a reduction reaction: F 2 + 2e - → 2F - elements always have an oxidation number of zero. In the first half reaction hydrogen is oxidized from an oxidation number of zero to an oxidation number of ...

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

... can be used to genetically tell individuals apart. It can also show the genetic relationship between individuals, because children inherit genetic elements from their parents. It is also used to determine the relationships among species . See also Amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

Species

... categories. Aristotle and other pre-Darwinian scientists took the species to be distinct and unchanging, with an " essence ", like the chemical elements . When early observers began to develop systems of organization for living things, they began to place formerly isolated species into a context. To ...

Synapse

... as phosphorylation of the proteins involved. The size, number and replenishment rate of vesicles also are subject to regulation, as are many other elements of synaptic transmission. The drugs known as selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or SSRIs affect certain synapses by inhibiting the re-uptake ...

Virus

... is not entirely clear, but the currently favoured explanation is that they are derived from their host organisms, originating from transferrable elements like plasmids or transposons . It has also been suggested that they may represent extremely reduced microbes, appeared separately in the ...
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