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Element in Biological Definition

Genetic recombination

... site-specific recombination, a mobile DNA element is inserted into a strand of DNA by means similar ... in crossover. A segment of DNA on the mobile element matches exactly with a segment of DNA on the ... integrases to insert the rest of the mobile element into the target. Transpositional ...

Microsatellite

... tissue. See also: minisatellite , mobile element , transposon , short interspersed repetitive element , long interspersed repetitive element , junk DNA , selfish DNA ...

Phloem

... All of their functions of a sieve-tube element are carried out by its (much smaller but quite ... . Cells in a sugar source "load" a sieve-tube element by actively transporting solute molecules into it. This causes water to move into the sieve-tube element by osmosis , creating pressure that pushes the ...

Xylem

... Both tracheids and vessel elements are dead at maturity. A xylem vessel element is an elongated cell that dies once it has functionally matured. When the interior of a xylem vessel element disintegrates, the thickened cell wall remains, forming a nonliving ...

Andrew Huxley

... potential theory represent one of the earliest applications of a technique of electrophysiology known as the "voltage clamp". The second critical element of their research was the so-called giant axon of Atlantic squid ( Loligo pealei ), which enabled them to record ionic currents as they would not ...

Bacterium

... have two distinct modes of movement: forward movement (swimming) and tumbling. The tumbling allows them to reorient and introduces an important element of randomness in their forward movement. (see external links below for link to videos). Motile bacteria are attracted or repelled by certain ...

Biomechanics

... mathematical tools include linear algebra , differential equations , vector and tensor calculus , and computational techniques such as the finite element method. The study of biomaterials is of crucial importance to biomechanics. For example, the various tissues within the body, such as skin, bone, ...

Culture

... For example, hamburgers are mundane in the United States, but were considered exotic when introduced in China. "Stimulus diffusion" refers to an element of one culture leading to an invention in another. Diffusions of innovations theory presents a research-based model for why and when individuals and ...

Diabetes mellitus

... Type 1 diabetes appears to be triggered by infection, stress, or environmental factors (e.g. exposure to a causative agent). There is a genetic element in the susceptibility of individuals to some of these triggers which has been traced to particular HLA genotypes (i.e. genetic "self" ...

Bacterium

... have two distinct modes of movement: forward movement (swimming) and tumbling. The tumbling allows them to reorient and introduces an important element of randomness in their forward movement. (see external links below for link to videos). Motile bacteria are attracted or repelled by certain ...

Gamete

... through crossover (a form of genetic recombination ) of chromosomes, something that takes place in meiosis. This hybridization has a random element and the chromosomes tend to be a little different in every gamete an individual produces. This recombination, and the fact that the two chromosome ...

Insulin

... which has been stored in secretory vesicles The calcium level also regulates expression of the insulin gene via the calcium responsive element binding protein ( CREB ). This is the main mechanism for release of insulin and regulation of insulin synthesis. In addition some insulin ...

Lysozyme

... History Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), who discovered penicillin , described lysozyme in 1922 (Fleming A. On a remarkable bacteriolytic element found in tissues and secretions. Proc Roy Soc Ser B 1922;93:306-17). ...

Meiosis

... the pair of chromosomes hold until anaphase. Prophase I is subdivided into different stages: Leptotene : chromosomes condense, the axial element of the synaptonemal complex (a protein lattice that keeps homologous chromosomes toghether) is formed. Zygotene : The synaptonemal complex is ...

Microorganism

... in all ecosystems and in most higher-order multicellular organisms. For mankind they are important for participating in driving the earth's main element cycles, and for the creation of certain types of food, medical substances and biological weapons. See also Nanobacterium External ...

Mitosis

... there are two identical copies of each chromosome in the cell. Identical chromosomes (called sister chromosomes) are attached to each other at a DNA element present on every chromosome called the centromere . A protein called cohesin acts as a glue joining two sister chromosomes (a.k.a. sister ...

Operator

... of quantum mechanics . In that context operator often means a linear transformation from a Hilbert space to another, or (more abstractly) an element of a C* algebra . See also Logical operator function (mathematics) unary operation binary operation ternary operation ...

Prion

... identified or postulated as prions: Sup35p , forming the [PSI+] element; Ure2p , forming the [URE3] element; Rnq1p , forming the [RNQ+] element (also known as [PIN+]); New1p , forming the [NU+] element. Molecular Properties of Prions A great deal of our knowledge of how prions work ...

Promoter

... (1991). Thalassemia intermedia: moderate reduction of beta globin gene transcriptional activity by a novel mutation of the proximal CACCC promoter element . Blood . 77 (9), 2054-2058. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome case study: Petrij F, Giles RH, Dauwerse HG, Saris JJ, Hennekam RC, Masuno ...

Prophase

... there are two identical copies of each chromosome in the cell. Identical chromosomes (called sister chromosomes) are attached to each other at a DNA element present on every chromosome called the centromere . When chromosomes are paired up and attached, each individual chromosome in the pair is ...

Protein

... which led to them receiving a Nobel Prize in Chemistry . A protein (in Greek πρωτεϊνη = first element ) is a complex, high molecular weight organic compound that consists of amino acids joined by peptide bonds . Proteins are essential to the ...

Mitosis

... there are two identical copies of each chromosome in the cell. Identical chromosomes (called sister chromosomes) are attached to each other at a DNA element present on every chromosome called the centromere . A protein called cohesin acts as a glue joining two sister chromosomes (a.k.a. sister ...
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